Torchitorio of Gallura

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Church of Saint Simplicius at Olbia, constructed by Torchitorio. Olbia San Simplicio.jpg
Church of Saint Simplicius at Olbia, constructed by Torchitorio.

Torchitorio de Zori (also spelled Torcotor(e)(io) or (T)(D)orgodorio, and also de Thori; died before 1113) is the earliest Judge of Gallura known with certainty and attested by contemporary sources. He lived in the late 11th century at a time when Sardinia was entering the wider Western European scene for the first time in centuries. Like his contemporary judges, he patronised Western monasticism.

Judge of Gallura

The kings or judges of Gallura were the local rulers of the northeast of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the closest kingdom to Corsica.

Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.

His most enduring work was the building of a new church in Civita (modern Olbia), where he made his capital, in honour of Saint Simplicius, a sixth-century bishop and martyr of the city. Torchitorio also invited monks from Saint-Victor at Marseilles to come to Gallura in 1089, in imitation of his contemporary Torchitorio I of Cagliari. He granted the new monks four churches and they in turn opened up new lines of intellectual and economic interchange with Provence.

Olbia Comune in Sardinia, Italy

Olbia is a city and comune of 60,345 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northeastern Sardinia (Italy), in the Gallura sub-region. Called Olbia in the Roman age, Cività in the Middle Ages and Terranova Pausania before the 1940s, Olbia was again the official name of the city during the period of Fascism.

Torchitorio I of Cagliari Italian noble

Orzocorre Torchitorio I was the Judge of Cagliari from about 1058 to his death. At his time, the throne was customarily alternated between the Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon families. Obviously, Torchitorio was of the former.

Provence Historical province in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It largely corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, and includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse. The largest city of the region is Marseille.

Sometime after 1092, [1] however, Torchitorio fell out with the church. Dagobert, Archbishop of Pisa and papal legate to the island, convoked a provincial synod at Porto Torres and declared Torthictorio excommunicate. The purpose of the anathema may have been less the result of the judge's vices, but more of his political support for the Emperor Henry IV and the Antipope Guibert. Evidence for this is suggested by the anathema pronounced on the entire province. Torchitorio's retainers reportedly denied him the kiss of peace and the brotherly salute. [2]

Dagobert of Pisa Roman Catholic archbishop

Dagobert was the first Archbishop of Pisa and the second Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after the city was captured in the First Crusade.

Papal legate a personal representative of the pope

A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters.

Porto Torres Comune in Sardinia, Italy

Porto Torres is a comune and city in the Province of Sassari, northern Sardinia, Italy.

He was dead by 1113, when his widow, Paulesa (Padulesa) de Gunale, made a donation to S. Maria di Pisa. The evidence after his death is that Ittocorre de Gunale usurped the throne from his son Saltaro. The Gunale and Thori families were ancient enemies only kept at peace during the marriage of Torchitorio and Padulesa. He probably also left a daughter who married Constantine Spanu.

Ittocorre or Ottocorre was the Judge of Gallura early in the 12th century. He is first mentioned in a donation charter of Padules de Gunale, the widow of Torchitorio de Zori in 1112, from which it is inferred that he succeeded Torchitorio as judge around the start of the 12th century.

Saltaro was the Judge of Gallura, located on the northeastern section of Sardinia, but the dates of his reign are unknown, as are his familial ties.

Notes

  1. Manno, 244 n702, based on a preserved letter of a Gallurese monk, John, to Richard, Cardinal-Abbot of Saint-Victor and its reference to an archbishop. The diocese of Pisa was only raised to archiepiscopal status in 1092.
  2. Manno, 244.

Sources

Preceded by
Saltaro
Judge of Gallura
c. 1080 c. 1100
Succeeded by
Ittocorre

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