Orzocorre Torchitorio I (also spelled Orzocco and Torgodorio; died circa 1089) was the Judge of Cagliari (rex Sardiniae de loco Call.) from about 1058 to his death. At his time, the throne was customarily alternated between the Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon families. Obviously, Torchitorio was of the former.
Torchitorio was judge at a time when Western monasticism was being introduced into Sardinia as part of the Gregorian reform of the Papacy. Cagliari, like the other giudicati , was placed under papal and Pisan authority. Torchitorio is thus one of the first judges of Cagliari about whom anything is known. He severely increased donations to the church and lent support to the monks of Monte Cassino who were arriving on the island to bring economic, technological, and religious renewal. Despite this, his attention to the church, the only portion of his policy handed down to us, has led to him being labelled "publicly useless" by certain historians.He was directed by Pope Gregory VII to force the clergy of the Archdiocese of Cagliari to shave their beards and attend to their churches, which the pope claimed were in neglect.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.
The Republic of Pisa was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for a century before being surpassed and superseded by the Republic of Genoa. The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical Maritime Republics of Italy.
Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed.
His wife was Vera and they succeeded in breaking tradition and passing the guiduicato (judgeship) to their eldest son Constantine. Vera survived him and was alive in 1090. Their other sons were Peter, Sergius, Orzocorre, Gonario, and Torbeno. All died around 1125 except the last, who briefly usurped the throne from his brother, and was last heard of on 13 February 1130.
Constantine I was the giudice of Cagliari. He was the son of the giudice Orzocco Torchitorio and giudicessa Vera. In the eleventh century, the throne of Cagliari traditionally passed between the houses of Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon. Constantine took the name Salusio II upon his succession, in an attempt to unite the families. He appears in contemporary charters as rex et iudex Caralitanus: "King and Judge of Cagliari."
Torbeno or Turbino was briefly Judge of Cagliari after Constantine I for an unknown period between 1090, when Constantine last appears in the sources, and 1108, when Constantine's son Torchitorio II first appears as judge.
| Giudice of Cagliari |
c. 1058 – c. 1089
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The Judicate of Arborea was one of the four independent judicates into which the island of Sardinia was divided in the Middle Ages. It occupied the central-west portion of the island, wedged between Logudoro to the north and east, Cagliari to the south and east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. To the north east and beyond Logudoro was located Gallura, with which Arborea had far less interaction. Arborea outlasted her neighbours, surviving well into the 15th century. The earliest known judicial seat was Tharros. Kingdom of Arborea at the times of its maximum expansion occupied the whole island's territory, except the cities of Alghero and Cagliari.
William I, regnal name Salusio IV, was the Giudice of Cagliari, or high Judge, from 1188 to his death. His descendents and those of his immediate competitors intermarried to form the backbone of the Italian Aristocracy, and ultimately their descendents in the Medici clan are precursors to, and definers of later royalty and claims thereto.
The Judicate of Cagliari was one of the four Sardinian judicates of the Middle Ages, kingdoms of Byzantine origins.
The kings or judges of Cagliari were the local rulers of the south of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the largest kingdom and for the eleventh through twelfth centuries contested the supremacy on the island with that of Logudoro. It was often an ally of the Republic of Pisa and an early supporter of Western monasticism.
The Judicate of Gallura was one of four Sardinian judicates in the Middle Ages. These were independent states whose rulers bore the title iudex, judge. Gallura, a name which comes from gallus, meaning rooster (cock), was subdivided into ten curatoriaegoverned by curatores under the judge. In the 13th century, the arms of Gallura contained a rooster.
Torchitorio V, born John and known as Chiano or Chianni, was the Giudice (Judge) of Cagliari from 1250 to his death. His reign was brief but transformative in the history of Sardinia.
Peter II was the Giudice ("Judge") of Arborea from 1221 to his death. He was also Peter IV, Viscount of Bas. He was "pious and submissive to the church" and his extensive "donations of privileges and judicial lands impoverished his state of glory."
Barisone II Torchitorio IV de Serra was the Judike (Judge) of Arborea and Cagliari.
Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio was the Judge of Gallura from 1206, when he married the heiress Elena, to his own death. He was a member of the Visconti family of Pisa and the first of that dynasty to rule in Sardinia, where they lasted in Gallura for almost another century.
Benedetta was the daughter and heiress of William I of Cagliari and Adelasia, daughter of Moroello Malaspina. She succeeded her father in January or February 1214.
Ittocorre or Ottocorre was the Judge of Gallura early in the 12th century. He is first mentioned in a donation charter of Padules de Gunale, the widow of Torchitorio de Zori in 1112, from which it is inferred that he succeeded Torchitorio as judge around the start of the 12th century.
William II Salusio V was the Judge of Cagliari from 1232 to his death. His Christian name was William, but his regnal name was Salusio, based on ancient Cagliaritan traditions which alternated their rulers between the forenames Torchitorio and Salusio. He would have been called Salusio in official documents, though he is known historically as William, after his grandfather, William I.
Ubaldo I Visconti was the de jure overlord of the Giudicato of Cagliari from 1217. He was a member of the Visconti family of Pisa, controlling Cagliari on behalf of his brother, who was judge jure uxoris from 1218.
Torchitorio de Zori is the earliest Judge of Gallura known with certainty and attested by contemporary sources. He lived in the late 11th century at a time when Sardinia was entering the wider Western European scene for the first time in centuries. Like his contemporary judges, he patronised Western monasticism.
Saltaro was the Judge of Gallura, located on the northeastern section of Sardinia, but the dates of his reign are unknown, as are his familial ties.
Torchitorio II, also known by his birth name as Marianus II and surnamed de Unali, was the Judge of Cagliari from circa 1102 to his death, but initially with opposition.
Orzocorre I was the Judge of Arborea from circa 1070 to circa 1100 and is the first ruler of Arborea about whom anything substantial is known. He was the founder of an Arborean dynasty which reigned until 1185. He succeeded Marianus I, about whose government nothing is known, though some presume that Orzocorre was his son. If true, this would make Orzocorre a member of the Thori family.
Torbeno or Turbino was the eldest son and successor of Orzocorre I as Judge of Arborea from about 1100 until his death.