The Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (TOAEP) is an academic publisher specializing in international law and policy.Established in 2010, it is named after Torkel Opsahl,
TOAEP grew out of the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) as a research project. It is owned by the Centre for International Law Research and Policy (CILRAP), an independent international research centre in Brussels, Belgium,but it has editorial independence.
The TOAEP was the first academic e-publisher in international law, publishing both in print and freely online.It has five publication series in international criminal and humanitarian law, and other areas of international law, which are all available online and may be downloaded free of charge. Its publications can also be accessed through the ICC Legal Tools Database and Lexsitus.
TOAEP's Editor-in-Chief is Morten Bergsmo, and it draws on an international team of editors and editorial assistants. TOAEP has published more than 560 authors from around the world.There have been more than 40 reviews of TOAEP books in international law journals and yearbooks since 2010. TOAEP has more than 40,000 subscribers to its new publications.
Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part. A term coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, the hybrid word geno-cide is a combination of the Greek word γένος and the Latin suffix -caedo.
The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression. It is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals. The ICC lacks universal territorial jurisdiction, and may only investigate and prosecute crimes committed within member states, crimes committed by nationals of member states, or crimes in situations referred to the Court by the United Nations Security Council.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposely committed as part of a widespread or systematic policy, directed against civilians, in times of war or peace. They differ from war crimes because they are not isolated acts committed by individual soldiers, but are acts committed in furtherance of a state policy. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Initially being considered for legal use, widely in International Law, following the Holocaust. Following the Holocaust a global standard of human rights was articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. Political groups or states that violate or incite violation of human rights norms, as found in the Declaration, are an expression of the political pathologies associated with crimes against humanity.
The International Chamber of Commerce is the largest, most representative business organization in the world. Its over 45 million members in over 100 countries have interests spanning every sector of private enterprise.
The war-responsibility trials in Finland were trials of the Finnish wartime leaders held responsible for "definitely influencing Finland in getting into a war with the Soviet Union and United Kingdom in 1941 or preventing peace" during the Continuation War, the Finnish term for their participation in the Second World War from 1941–1944. Unlike other World War II war-responsibility trials, the Finnish trials were not international. The trials were conducted from November 1945 through February 1946 by a special court consisting of the presidents of the Supreme Court of Finland, the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland, a professor from the University of Helsinki and twelve MPs appointed by the Parliament of Finland. The accused were convicted and were imprisoned until they were eventually paroled and then pardoned.
The American Bar Foundation (ABF) is an independent, nonprofit national research institute established in 1952 and located in Chicago. Its mission is to expand knowledge and advance justice by supporting innovative, interdisciplinary and rigorous empirical research on law, legal processes and legal institutions. This program of sociolegal research is conducted by an interdisciplinary staff of Research Faculty trained in such diverse fields as law, sociology, psychology, political science, economics, history, and anthropology.
The states parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those sovereign states that have ratified, or have otherwise become party to, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The Rome Statute is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court, an international court that has jurisdiction over certain international crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes that are committed by nationals of states parties or within the territory of states parties. States parties are legally obligated to co-operate with the Court when it requires, such as in arresting and transferring indicted persons or providing access to evidence and witnesses. States parties are entitled to participate and vote in proceedings of the Assembly of States Parties, which is the Court's governing body. Such proceedings include the election of such officials as judges and the Prosecutor, the approval of the Court's budget, and the adoption of amendments to the Rome Statute.
The Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC) is an international network of NGOs, with a membership of over 2,500 organizations worldwide advocating for a fair, effective and independent International Criminal Court (ICC). Coalition NGO members work in partnership to strengthen international cooperation with the ICC; ensure that the court is fair, effective and independent; make justice both visible and universal, and advance stronger national laws that deliver justice to victims of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. The CICC Secretariat is hosted by the World Federalist Movement-Institute for Global Policy (WFM-IGP) and has offices in New York City, near the United Nations (UN), and in The Hague, The Netherlands. Additionally, the CICC has regional offices in Belgium, and Peru.
Chris Mahony is a former rugby union player for the Auckland Air New Zealand Cup team, playing fullback centre or wing. He played for Oxford University where he has completed a Masters in African Studies and a DPhil in Politics.
In the Republic of China between 1912 and 1949, a Mobile Barracks of High Command was a government regional special office opened on behalf of the military supreme commander in a particular region, where there was a high-ranking government or military official as the regional representative of the supreme commander in chief. The term was in use since the time of ancient China.
Professor Diane Marie Amann is the Emily & Ernest Woodruff Chair in International Law at the University of Georgia School of Law. She has served since mid-2017 as a Faculty Co-Director of the law school's Dean Rusk International Law Center, a position she took up after completing a two-and-a-half-year term as Associate Dean for International Programs & Strategic Initiatives. Additionally, she serves as Professor of International Affairs at the University of Georgia School of Public & International Affairs and as an Affiliated Faculty Member at the University of Georgia African Studies Institute.
Mass atrocity crimes have historically referred to the three legally defined international crimes of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Ethnic cleansing is widely regarded as a fourth mass atrocity crime by legal scholars and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the field, despite not yet being recognized as an independent crime under international law.
Asbjørn Eide is a Norwegian human rights scholar with base in Law and Social Science Research. He was married October 10, 1959, to Professor of nutritional physiology Wenche Barth Eide, and the father of former Norwegian Minister of Defence (2011–12) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (2012-13) Espen Barth Eide.
The Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute at Washington University School of Law, established in 2000 as the Institute for Global Legal Studies, serves as a center for instruction and research in international and comparative law.
The term 'Legal Tools' refers to online legal-information services developed by the ICC Legal Tools Project since 2006, primarily with support from the European Union. The main services are the Legal ToolsDatabase ('LTD'), the Legal Tools Website, and the Case Matrix. The anthology Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer provides comprehensive information about the ICC Legal Tools Project and its open access value-base.
A memory law is a legal provision governing the interpretation of a historical event and showcases the legislator's or judicial preference for a certain narrative about the past. In the process, competing interpretations may be downplayed, sidelined, or even prohibited.
The Danish collaborator trials took place in Denmark in the aftermath of World War II. Danish citizens who were accused of collaborating with the Nazis during their occupation of Denmark were put on trial.
Professor Dato' Dr. Rahmat bin Mohamad is a Malaysian legal scholar and professor of law at the Universiti Teknologi MARA. He is currently the Deputy Vice Chancellor of Universiti Teknologi MARA since November 2018. He has served Universiti Teknologi MARA in Shah Alam in various capacities from 1986 onwards. He served as the Assistant Vice Chancellor (2003–2005), Deputy Vice Chancellor (2005–2008), Assistant Vice Chancellor (Strategy) (2016) and Dean of Law Faculty (2017). He is also currently the Chairman of National Sports Institute of Malaysia.
Jacques Pierre Leider is a French and Luxembourgian historian, teacher and former diplomat.
Lt. Col. Richard Brennan is a Barrister-at-Law in the Legal Service of the Irish Defence Forces (IDF) and former National Legal Advisor to the IDF during United Nations peacekeeping operations as a United Nations Military Observer. He is a legal scholar on international humanitarian law and the legal basis of peacekeeping missions.