Tsiazompaniry Dam

Last updated
Tsiazompaniry Dam
Madagascar physical map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Tsiazompaniry Dam in Madagascar
CountryMadagascar
Location Tsiazompaniry, Analamanga Region
Coordinates 19°15′16.68″S47°50′44.56″E / 19.2546333°S 47.8457111°E / -19.2546333; 47.8457111 Coordinates: 19°15′16.68″S47°50′44.56″E / 19.2546333°S 47.8457111°E / -19.2546333; 47.8457111
PurposePower, water supply
StatusOperational
Opening date1956;63 years ago (1956)
Owner(s) Jirama
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Buttress
Impounds Varahina-South River
Height27 m (89 ft)
Reservoir
Total capacity260,000,000 m3 (210,000 acre⋅ft)
Surface area31 km2 (12 sq mi)

The Tsiazompaniry Dam is a buttress dam on the Varahina-South River, a tributary of the Ikopa River, near Tsiazompaniry in the Analamanga Region of Madagascar. The dam was constructed by a French firm in 1956. It creates Lake Tsiazompaniry, the largest reservoir in the country, which has a surface area of 31 km2 (12 sq mi) and a storage volume of 260,000,000 m3 (210,000 acre⋅ft). A second buttress dam, 1 km (0.62 mi) northwest of the main dam helps withhold the reservoir. Water released from the dam supplies a regulated flow to hydroelectric power station at the Antelomita Dam downstream. [1] [2] Efforts to install a 5.25 MW power station at the base of the dam began in 2011. [3]

Buttress dam dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses or supports

A buttress dam or hollow dam is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses or supports. The dam wall may be straight or curved. Most buttress dams are made of reinforced concrete and are heavy, pushing the dam into the ground. Water pushes against the dam, but the buttresses are inflexible and prevent the dam from falling over.The Buttress dam does however, run into certain problems that are not as prevalent in other dams. Even though they tend to be more economical they run the risk of not reaching the proper height required to become effective. An example would be as follows with a slope of 50 degrees the crown of each arch will have to be 0.84 feet farther forward at the crest than at the base for each foot of height. This defect will demand that the dam is either much taller than calculated or a lot wider to accommodate for the problem. Another issue is that the dam has to have a proper foundation of bedrock or other suitable material. If the buttresses for the dam are not properly seated the dam runs the chances of a possible collapse. Some problems that might occur during the construction of a buttress dam is cracks along the convex side near the cresting of the dam due to thermal stresses and the dam not being 'loaded'. Once the dam has been reinforced if cracks continue to occur the cracks will close once the force of the water is against it.

Ikopa River river in Madagascar

The Ikopa River is the second longest waterway in Madagascar and passes through the capital, Antananarivo. It is the largest tributary of the Betsiboka River. It is formed by the Varahina-North and Varahina-South Rivers.

Madagascar Island nation off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

See also

Related Research Articles

Dam A barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface or underground streams

A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC.

Hume Dam dam in Australia

Hume Dam, formerly the Hume Weir, is a major dam across the Murray River downstream of its junction with the Mitta River in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. The dam's purpose includes flood mitigation, hydro-power, irrigation, water supply and conservation. The impounded reservoir is called Lake Hume, formerly the Hume Reservoir. It is a gated concrete gravity dam with four earth embankments and twenty-nine vertical undershot gated concrete overflow spillways.

Central Valley Project

The Central Valley Project (CVP) is a federal water management project in the U.S. state of California under the supervision of the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). It was devised in 1933 in order to provide irrigation and municipal water to much of California's Central Valley—by regulating and storing water in reservoirs in the northern half of the state, and transporting it to the water-poor San Joaquin Valley and its surroundings by means of a series of canals, aqueducts and pump plants, some shared with the California State Water Project (SWP). Many CVP water users are represented by the Central Valley Project Water Association.

Mica Dam hydroelectric power station

Mica Dam, a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River 135 kilometres north of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, was built as one of three Canadian projects under the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty and is operated by BC Hydro. Completed in 1973 under the terms of the treaty, the Mica powerhouse had an original generating capacity of 1,805 megawatts (MW). Mica Dam, named after the nearby settlement of Mica Creek and its associated stream, in turn named after the abundance of mica minerals in the area, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world. The reservoir for the dam is Kinbasket Lake, which was created when the dam was built. Water from the dam flows south directly into Revelstoke Lake, the reservoir for the Revelstoke Dam. Mica Dam is the tallest dam in Canada and second tallest in North America after the Chicoasén Dam in Mexico and it is the farthest upstream dam on the Columbia River. The dam's underground powerhouse was the second largest in the world at the time of its construction, and was the first 500 kV installation of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) insulated switchgear in the world.

The Salt River Project (SRP) is the umbrella name for two separate entities: the Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District, an agency of the state of Arizona that serves as an electrical utility for the Phoenix metropolitan area, and the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association, a utility cooperative that serves as the primary water provider for much of central Arizona. It is one of the primary public utility companies in Arizona.

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam dam in India

The Ranapratap Sagar Dam is a gravity masonry dam of 53.8 metres (177 ft) height built on the Chambal River at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan in India. It is part of integrated scheme of a cascade development of the river involving four projects starting with the Gandhi Sagar Dam in the upstream reach in Madhya Pradesh and the Jawahar Sagar Dam on the downstream with a terminal structure of the Kota Barrage in Rajasthan for irrigation.

Lake Qaraoun lake in Lebanon

Lake Qaraoun is an artificial lake or reservoir located in the southern region of the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. It was created near Qaraoun village in 1959 by building a 61-metre-high (200 ft) concrete-faced rockfill dam in the middle reaches of the Litani River. The reservoir has been used for hydropower generation, domestic water supply, and for irrigation of 27,500 hectares.

Daniel-Johnson dam

The Daniel-Johnson dam, formerly known as Manic-5, is a multiple-arch buttress dam on the Manicouagan River that creates the annular Manicouagan Reservoir. The dam is composed of 14 buttresses and 13 arches and is 214 km (133 mi) north of Baie-Comeau in Quebec, Canada. The dam was constructed between 1959 and 1970 for the purpose of hydroelectric power production and supplies water to the Manic-5 and Manic-5-PA power houses with a combined capacity of 2,596 MW. The dam is 214 m (702 ft) tall, 1,314 m (4,311 ft) long and contains 2,200,000 m3 of concrete, making it the largest dam of its type in the world.

Mingtan Dam

The Mingtan Dam is a dam that spans the Shuili River about 4 km (2.5 mi) downstream from the outlet of Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan with a height of about 61.5 m (202 ft). It forms Mingtan Reservoir which is the lower reservoir for the Mingtan Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant.

Liyuan Dam

The Liyuan Dam is a concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Jinsha River on the border of Yulong County and Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province, China. The dam will have an associated hydroelectric power station with a 2,400 MW power station containing 4 x 600 MW generators. Construction on the river diversion for the dam began in 2008. It began to impound its reservoir in November 2014 and on December 28, 2014 the first generator was commissioned. The second generator was commissioned in July 2015.

Pensacola Dam

The Pensacola Dam, also known as the Grand River Dam, is a multiple-arch buttress dam on the Grand River in-between Disney and Langley in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The dam is operated by the Grand River Dam Authority and creates Grand Lake o' the Cherokees. After decades of vision and planning, it was constructed between 1938 and 1940 for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation, flood control and recreation. It is Oklahoma's first hydroelectric power plant and is referred to as the longest multiple-arch dam in the world.

Koteshwar Dam dam in India

The Koteshwar Dam is a gravity dam on the Bhagirathi River, located 22 km (14 mi) downstream of the Tehri Dam in Tehri District, Uttarakhand, India. The dam is part of the Tehri Hydropower Complex and serves to regulate the Tehri Dam's tailrace for irrigation and create the lower reservoir of the Tehri Pumped Storage Power Station. In addition, the dam has a 400 MW run-of-the-river power station. The project was approved in 2000 and its first generator was commissioned on 27 March 2011, the second on 30 March 2011. The construction site had been inundated in September 2010 by floods. The diversion tunnel was later blocked heaving/collapse of the hill in December 2010. The spillway was commissioned in Jan,2011. The last two generators were made operational in March 2012.

Hunanzhen Dam Dam on the Qiantang River, located south of Quzhou in Zhejiang Province, China

The Hunanzhen Dam is a trapezoidal buttress dam on the Qiantang River, located 27 km (17 mi) south of Quzhou in Zhejiang Province, China. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation but it also serves to provide for flood control and irrigation water supply. Construction on the dam began in 1958 but was halted in 1961. It recommenced in 1970, the first generator was operational in 1979 and the project complete in 1980. The original installed capacity of the dam's power plant was 170 MW but the plant was expanded with an additional 100 MW generator, commissioned in 2006.

Roselend Dam dam

The Roselend Dam is an arch-buttress dam located 5 km (3 mi) east of Beaufort in the Savoie department of the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It is located just west and below the Cormet de Roselend mountain pass. The dam was designed by Coyne et Bellier and construction began in 1955. The reservoir began to fill in 1960, the power station was operational in 1961 and the dam complete in 1962. It was constructed for the primary purpose of hydroelectric power generation and supports the 546 MW La Bâthie Power Station.

Oberon Dam

Oberon Dam or Fish River Dam is a major ungated concrete slab and buttress with earth embankment dam comprising a concrete ski jump chute spillway and fuse plug across the Fish River upstream of Oberon in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The dam's purpose includes flood mitigation, industrial, and water supply. The impounded reservoir is called Lake Oberon.

Polgolla Barrage

The Polgolla Barrage, is a barrage built across the Mahaweli River at Polgolla, in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. The barrage is used to increase the volume of water, for transfer to the hydroelectric power station located 8 km (5 mi) north, via penstock.

Mantasoa Dam dam in Madagascar

Mantasoa Dam is a buttress dam on the Varahina-North River, a tributary of the Ikopa River, near Mantasoa in the Analamanga Region of Madagascar. The dam was constructed by the French Business Company between 1937 and 1938. It creates Lake Mantasoa which has a surface area of 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi). The dam itself is made of 8,000 m3 (10,000 cu yd) of concrete and has a reinforced buttress design. Water released from the dam supplies a regulated flow to hydroelectric power station at the Antelomita Dams downstream. A saddle dam on the north side of the Mantosoa reservoir regulates water flow into the Mandraka River for the Mandraka Dam downstream.

Mandraka Dam

Mandraka Dam is a gravity dam on the Mandraka River near Mandraka in the Analamanga Region of Madagascar. The dam was constructed by a French firm by 1956 and creates Lake Mandraka.

The Antelomita Hydroelectric Power Station is located in Antelomita of the Analamanga Region, Madagascar. The hydroelectric power station comprises two parts, Antelomita I and II. Both are adjacent to one another on separate water falls along the Ikopa River. Each water fall is dammed and water is diverted to the power station; each of which contains three 1.4 megawatts (1,900 hp) generators. The first two were commissioned in 1930, the second two in 1952 and the final two in 1953. Both stages have an installed capacity of 8.4 megawatts (11,300 hp). They were built by a French firm but are now owned and operated by Jirama. The Tsiazompaniry and Mantasoa Dams upstream regulate water to the power station.

References

  1. "Mantasoa and lake". Mantasoa. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  2. "Dams of Madagascar". UN FAO. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  3. "ORBEO partners with Henri Fraise & Fils to develop a CDM* Hydro Power Project in Madagascar" (PDF). Orbeo. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.