Union of Orthodox Rabbis

Last updated

The Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada (UOR), often called by its Hebrew name, Agudath Harabonim or Agudas Harrabonim ("union of rabbis"), was established in 1901 in the United States and is the oldest organization of Orthodox rabbis in the United States. It had been for many years the principal group for such rabbis, though in recent years it has lost much of its former membership and influence.



The Agudath Harabonim was formed in 1902, to espouse a strictly traditionalist agenda. Its founders were concerned with the Americanized, acculturated character of even the relatively traditional wing of local Jewry, exemplified by the Orthodox Union (OU), which had formed five years earlier, and the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. There were two distinct groups within the American Orthodox rabbinate: the Eastern European and the Western European and American-born: "The Americans were English-speakers, often had a secular education, and competed with Reform (and later Conservative) movements for the heart of the modern American Jew. European transplants were often Yiddish-speaking with barely any English skills, trained exclusively in rabbinics, and would be termed Haredi today, and had a stronger affinity to the entire body of religious texts; they were there to maintain standards." Though there were American scholars trained in the European path, and European schools that supported secular scholarship, most rabbis belonged to one camp or the other.[ citation needed ]

To the Eastern Europeans, the OU and its later affiliated Rabbinical Council of America, were dangerously accommodationist and lacking in both scholarship and piety. Their credentials were rarely recognized, if at all, by the UOR. The Eastern Europeans needed a fellowship to promote their ideas and raise political capital, and the Agudath Harabanim served that need. [1]

The UOR leadership was willing to tolerate the OU in urgent needs, such as kosher supervision. The Agudath Harabonim initially started raising standards in New York and elsewhere, but had some trouble getting the butchers and shochtim in line. Mendes and his OU brethren in New York lent them assistance in this area.[ citation needed ]

Among the main founding rabbis of the Agudath Harabonim were Bernard Levinthal, Moshe Zevulun Margolies (known as "RAMAZ"), Moshe Yisrael Shapiro; [2] and S. A. Joffee. [3] Margolies was from Europe, and equally at ease in Yiddish and English, had feet in both camps, with a personality well suited for the modern American congregation.[ citation needed ]

Among the well-known leaders from the Agudath Harabonim's past are Rabbis Eliezer Silver and Moshe Feinstein. In recent years, the organization has been under the direction of Rabbi Tzvi Meir Ginsberg.[ citation needed ]

Competing Haredi organizations

Almost form the start, the Agudath Harabonim had critics among the Yiddish-speaking Rabbis as well. In particular, Rabbi Gavriel Wolf "Velvel" Margolis felt that the Union was too lax in some areas of kashruth, too exclusive, and too interfering in the kashruth work he had been hired to do by his congregation. He founded a competing organization, the Knesseth Harabonim (Assembly of Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis). [4] Evidence of the Knesseth exists starting around 1920, [3] but a Knesseth convention claims that it had existed for some years previously; [5] in any event, it had not been a successful organization prior to 1920. [3]

Several public relations wars broke out between Knesseth and Agudath in the 1920s. Many of them were about competing claims of laxity in meat supervision, wine supervision, or legitimacy of import and licensing of sacramental wine during Prohibition. [3] [1] However, not all was war, kashruth, or Prohibition. Both organizations worked on social issues of the day that affected Jews, and on the improvement of rabbinical life for their members. [6]

A third, less-active group was the Council of Orthodox Rabbis (Degel Harabanim). It may have merged with Knesseth shortly after its founding. They are known to have shared conventions, especially in opposition to Agudath. The warring seems to have died down in the late 1940s or 1950s; Knesseth and Degel faded away as a separate organization.[ citation needed ]

A later group, also small, is the Iggud Harabanim (Rabbinical Alliance of America), founded in 1942.[ citation needed ]

Only Agudath and Iggud still function today, though neither is very active.[ citation needed ]



The organization has not shied away from controversy in the past.[ citation needed ]

In December 1925, Reform Rabbi Stephen S. Wise delivered a sermon about Jesus the Jew, causing an uproar culminating in an edict of condemnation against him by the Agudath Harabonim. [7] [8]

In 1945, at Hotel McAlpin in New York City, the Agudath Harabonim "formally assembled to excommunicate from Judaism what it deemed to be the community's most heretical voice: Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, the man who eventually would become the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism. Kaplan, a critic of both Orthodox and Reform Judaism, believed that Jewish practice should be reconciled with modern thought, a philosophy reflected in his Sabbath Prayer Book.". [9] The prayer book was allegedly burned.[ citation needed ]

The group has regularly placed advertisements in Jewish newspapers shortly before the High Holy Days, prohibiting worship at non-Orthodox synagogues. [10] Similarly, the Friday April 4, 1997 edition of The Jewish Press , quoted from "A Historic Declaration", issued by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis on March 31, 1997:

Reform and Conservative are not Judaism at all. Their adherents are Jews, according to the Jewish Law, but their religion is not Judaism...we appeal to our fellow Jew, members of the Reform and Conservative movements: Having been falsely led by heretical leaders that Reform and Conservative are legitimate branches and denominations of Judaism, we urge you to be guided by this declaration, and withdraw from your affiliation with Reform and Conservative temples and their clergy. Do not hesitate to attend an Orthodox synagogue due to your inadequate observance of Judaism. On the contrary, it is because of that inadequacy that you need to attend an Orthodox synagogue where you will be warmly welcomed... [11]

The organization also condemned the National Jewish Outreach Program's (NJOP) Shabbat Across America/Canada (SAA) program because it co-ordinated and helped Reform and Conservative organizations. In an advertisement placed in the Friday March 7, 2003, edition of The Jewish Press it declared:

...Agudas Horabonim cannot approve of a call to attend a Reform or Conservative temple on Friday night, or any time. As important as Kiruv—bringing Jews closer to the synagogue—is, it must be carried out in accordance with the Halacha. Since the "Shabbat Across America/Canada" does not state that the synagogue must be Orthodox, clearly implying that it can also be a Reform and Conservative temple, the Agudas Harabonim strongly disapproves, and warns all Jews not to take part in the "Shabbat Across America/Canada" program.

One of the leading organizers of the above public protests was Rabbi David Hollander, an Orthodox rabbi and writer in New York.[ citation needed ]

Simone Veil

In 2005, French politician Simone Veil, an Auschwitz survivor, was invited to speak at the commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the camp's liberation. Yehuda Levin, on behalf of the Union, wrote to the President of Poland that it was inappropriate for Veil to speak at the event, since by "having brought about the legalization of abortion in France" she was "responsible for an ongoing destruction of human life far exceeding that of the Nazis".PR Jan.27, 2005

Notable members

Notable current members of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the USA and Canada:


Critics of Agudath Harabonim's efforts claim that the group's leadership does not deserve a media bully pulpit to denounce the practices of other American Jewish movements, because its rabbinical membership represents a statistically small portion of the total number of rabbis ordained by all movements in the United States, and even by the Orthodox movement itself. [12] [13]

In addition, they maintain that the group's controversial activities are not vocally supported by the American Orthodox Jewish community as whole, because its centrist and Modern Orthodox rabbinical members generally do not appear with the group during such announcements. [10] In addition, rabbis maintaining membership in both the UOR and Rabbinical Council of America frequently tend to place greater importance in, and watch more carefully, the activities of the RCA, thus making their support of UOR activities marginal at best.[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Orthodox Judaism Traditionalist branches of Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since.

A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the Talmud.

Joseph B. Soloveitchik American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher

Joseph Ber Soloveitchik was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher. He was a scion of the Lithuanian Jewish Soloveitchik rabbinic dynasty.

Agudath Israel of America Jewish ultra-orthodox organization

Agudath Israel of America is an American organization that represents Haredi Orthodox Jews. It is loosely affiliated with the international World Agudath Israel. Agudah seeks to meet the needs of the Haredi community, advocates for its religious and civil rights, and services its constituents through charitable, educational, and social service projects across North America.

Aharon Kotler

Rabbi Aharon Kotler (1891–1962) was an Orthodox Jewish rabbi and a prominent leader of Orthodox Judaism in Lithuania, and later the United States, where he founded Beth Medrash Govoha in Lakewood Township, New Jersey.

Conversion to Judaism Religious conversion of non-Jews

Conversion to Judaism is the process by which non-Jews adopt the Jewish religion and become members of the Jewish ethnoreligious community. It thus resembles both conversion to other religions and naturalization. The procedure and requirements for conversion depend on the sponsoring denomination. A conversion in accordance with the process of a denomination is not a guarantee of recognition by another denomination. Usually the conversions performed by the more stringent denominations are recognized by the less stringent ones, but not the other way around. A formal conversion is also sometimes undertaken by individuals whose Jewish ancestry is questioned or uncertain, even if they were raised Jewish, but may not actually be considered Jews according to traditional Jewish law.

Jewish leadership has evolved over time. Since the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish diaspora. Various branches of Judaism, as well as Jewish religious or secular communities and political movements around the world elect or appoint their governing bodies, often subdivided by country or region.

World Agudath Israel, usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. It succeeded Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel in 1912. Its base of support was located in Eastern Europe before the Second World War but, due to the revival of the Hasidic movement, it included Orthodox Jews throughout Europe.

Orthodox Union Orthodox Jewish organization in the USA

The Orthodox Union is one of the largest Orthodox Jewish organizations in the United States. Founded in 1898, the OU supports a network of synagogues, youth programs, Jewish and Religious Zionist advocacy programs, programs for the disabled, localized religious study programs, and international units with locations in Israel and formerly in Ukraine. The OU maintains a kosher certification service, whose circled-U hechsher symbol, Ⓤ, is found on the labels of many kosher commercial and consumer food products.

Yeshiva Torah Vodaas American Haredi yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York

Yeshiva Torah Vodaath is a yeshiva in the Kensington neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York.

Yeshivat Chovevei Torah Rabbinical School (YCT) is a Open Orthodox yeshiva, founded in 1999 by Rabbi Avi Weiss.

Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah

Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah is the supreme rabbinical policy-making council of the Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah movements in Israel; and of Agudath Israel of America in the United States. Members are usually prestigious Roshei Yeshiva or Hasidic rebbes, who are also usually regarded by many Haredi Jews to be the Gedolim ("great/est") sages of Torah Judaism. Before the Holocaust, it was the supreme authority for the World Agudath Israel in Europe.

Moshe Feinstein Great Orthodox Jewish Rabbi of the 20th century

Moshe Feinstein was an American Orthodox rabbi, scholar, and posek. He has been called the most famous Orthodox Jewish legal authority of the twentieth century and his rulings are often referenced in contemporary rabbinic literature. Feinstein served as president of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis, Chairman of the Council of the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah of the Agudath Israel of America, and head of Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem in New York.

Open Orthodoxy is a Jewish religious movement which considers itself part of Judaism with increased emphasis on intellectual openness, a spiritual dimension, a broad concern for all Jews, and a more expansive role for women. The term was coined in 1997 by Avi Weiss, who views halakha to be more flexible than it is according to more traditional forms of Orthodox Judaism.

Aaron Schechter American Haredi rabbi

Aaron Moshe Schechter is an American Haredi rabbi. He is the rosh yeshiva (dean) of Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin and its post-graduate Talmudical division, Kollel Gur Aryeh. He also serves on the presidium of Agudath Israel of America and is a member of that organization's Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah.

Yaakov Ben Zion Mendelsohn was a renowned Orthodox Jewish scholar, communal rabbi, Talmudist, Halachist, and rabbinical author.

Rabbi Herbert W.Bomzer, a leading figure in the American Jewish community, was widely recognized for his expertise and erudition in Halakha. Ordained at Yeshiva University, he received smicha from the revered Rabbis Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Moshe Feinstein. He held a Doctorate in Jewish Education and Administration, as well as a Master of Arts in Jewish History and Philosophy.

Ilan Daniel Feldman is an American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, public speaker and author. Since 1991 he has been the senior rabbi and spiritual leader of Congregation Beth Jacob of Atlanta, Georgia, succeeding his father, Rabbi Dr. Emanuel Feldman, who founded and led the congregation for 39 years. Over the past 20 years Feldman has built on his father's work, bringing a community kollel to the city and nurturing the growth of Atlanta as one of the leading centers for Orthodox Jewish life in America. He is also a founding board member of the Association for Jewish Outreach Programs (AJOP).

Rabbi Bernard Louis Levinthal, the "Dean of U. S. Rabbis," built Philadelphia's first Eastern European Orthodox Jewish community from his arrival in the United States in 1891 until his death in 1952. Rabbi Levinthal helped found American Jewish Orthodox institutions including Yeshiva University in 1896, the Orthodox Union in 1898, Mizrachi in 1902, and the American Agudas Harabbanim. His grave is in the Congregation Mikveh Israel 55th Street Cemetery in West Philadelphia.


  1. 1 2 Gurock, Jeffrey S. American Jewish History, Volume 5: The history of Judaism in America. KTAV. pp. 110–115.
  2. "Rabbi Moshe Yisroel Shapiro | kevarim.com".
  3. 1 2 3 4 Sprecher, Hannah. "Orthodox Rabbis React to Prohibition" (PDF). American Jewish Archives. pp. 172–173. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 32. Gurock, Resisters and Accommodators, pp. 147–148, describes this ongoing conflict as follows:
    'This senior scholar, the reputed [sic] author of several European-published rabbinic tracts, quickly elected chief rabbi of several New England area congregations, saw little personal value in affiliating with the relatively new rabbinic organization. If anything, he recognized the Agudat ha-Rabbanim as an organizational establishment which stood in the way of his economic and rabbinic-political advancement through the kashruth industry. . . . he undertook a decade-long campaign to undermine the reliability of Agudat ha-Rabbanim within New York Orthodox circles.'
    This harsh assessment of Rabbi Margolis's motives differs from the position taken by another respected historian.
    Arthur A. Goren , [Transitional] Institutions Transplanted, in The Jews of North America, ed. Moses Rischin (Detroit, 1987), p. 73, describes the conflict as follows: 'In 1911 Adath Israel appointed the eminent rabbi, scholar and preacher, Gabriel Ze'ev Margolis, as its spiritual leader. The Adath Israel leadership, with Margolis at its head and with the support of the Morgen Zhurnal, the Orthodox Yiddish daily, entered the thicket of communal politics. For the next decade it attempted to federate all Orthodox institutions with the goal of communalizing the supervision of kosher meat and religious education. Although the effort proved abortive, it illustrates the communal thrust latent in the traditional hevra kadisha society.'
  4. Sprecher. "In January 1920 Gabriel Wolf Margolis finally received the recognition that had eluded him when, together with 135 other he formed the Assembly of Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of America."
  5. "11th Annual Convention of K'nesseth Ha'rabonim". Jewish Daily Bulletin. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. May 12, 1926. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  6. Sprecher. Even the Assembly of Orthodox Rabbis entered the fray, sending telegrams to Wilson, President-elect Harding, and various congressmen. As reprinted in the organization's Sefer Knesset haRabbanim, they contained the following message: "Ministering as we do largely among erstwhile strangers in our land, we can testify that they are ready to embrace American ideals at the first opportunity. To create legislation which would leave undying pain in hearts of all American immigrants would certainly leave a poor background for us to do Americanization work."
  7. Adam Soclof (February 5, 2012). "Kosher Jesus - Again". Jewish Telegraphic Agency.
  8. "DR. WISE RESIGNS FROM JEWISH FUND; Says He Does Not Wish Sermon on Jesus to Hurt United Palestine Appeal. HE EXPLAINS HIS POSITION. Louis Lipsky Defends Him as a Champion of Zionist Cause and Religion of Jews". The New York Times. December 25, 1925.
  9. Zachary Silver, "A look back at a different book burning," The Forward, June 3, 2005
  10. 1 2 Debra Nussbaum Cohen, How a small Orthodox group wrote a national story, Jewish Telegraphic Agency [j. the Jewish News Weekly of Northern California], April 4, 1997
  11. "Article Details". www.acjna.org.
  12. E.g., "The Agudas Horabbonim still exists, but is little more than a paper organization." Jerome Chanes, A Primer on the American Jewish Community, American Jewish Committee
  13. E.g., "The Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada comprises a fraction of the Orthodox rabbinate in North America, and in Israel, the ultra-Orthodox, despite massive support from the government, still reach only a fraction of the population." Remarks of Eric H. Yoffie, President of the Union for Reform Judaism (then the Union of American Hebrew Congregations), April 12, 1997 Archived February 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .