|UN Security Council |
Map of Southern Rhodesia
|Date||December 16 1966|
|Subject||Question concerning the situation in Southern Rhodesia|
|11 voted for|
None voted against
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 232, adopted on December 16, 1966, noted with concern that the efforts to break off international economic activity with Southern Rhodesia had failed to bring the rebellion to an end, the Council decided that all member states would prevent the importation of an asbestos, iron ore, chrome, pig-iron, sugar, tobacco, copper, or animal-products that had originated in Southern Rhodesia. Additionally, the activities of any of their nationals designed to promote the export of these commodities or the importation of arms, ammunition of all types, military aircraft, military vehicles and equipments and materials for the manufacture and maintenance of arms and ammunition along with a total embargo of oil and oil products, though exception was made for contracts granted before this resolution.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa. It was the predecessor state of what is now Zimbabwe.
The Council also reaffirmed the inalienable rights of the people of Southern Rhodesia to freedom and independence and recognized the legitimacy of their struggle.
The resolution was adopted with 11 votes to none; the People's Republic of Bulgaria, France, Mali and the Soviet Union abstained.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria was the official name of Bulgaria, when it was a socialist republic.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. 67% of its population was estimated to be under the age of 25 in 2017. Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 221, adopted on April 9, 1966, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic, the Council was gravely concerned that Southern Rhodesia might receive a large supply of oil as the Joanna V, an oil tanker, had already arrived at Beira.
The Beira Patrol was a blockade of oil shipments to Rhodesia through Beira, Mozambique, resulting from United Nations trade sanctions on Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after the British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire as the state of Rhodesia. The vote was ten to none, with one member, France, abstaining.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 202, adopted on May 6, 1965, after reaffirming motions from the General Assembly, the Council requested that no member state accept a Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Southern Rhodesia and that the United Kingdom take all measures necessary to prevent it. The resolution also called on all political prisoners to be released and for the freedom of political parties to operate. The Council requested that the UK work toward and equitable constitution and for the future independence of a majority-ruled Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 253, adopted unanimously on May 29, 1968, after reaffirming previous resolutions, the Council noted with concern that the measures taken so far have failed to bring the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia to an end and condemned the recent "inhuman executions carried out by the illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia which have flagrantly affronted the conscience of mankind". After further condemning the regime and calling upon the United Kingdom to end the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia the Council decided that all member states would:
United Nations Security Council Resolution 277, adopted on March 18, 1970, concerned the state of Southern Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. The Council reaffirmed its previous resolutions and noted with grave concern that efforts thus far to bring the rebellion to the end had failed, some countries had not been obeying the Council's resolutions and that the situation in Southern Rhodesia continued to deteriorate as a result of the regime's new measures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 314, adopted on February 28, 1972, concerned that certain states were not complying with resolution 253, the Council decided that the sanctions against Southern Rhodesia set out in 253 would remain fully in force. It also urged all states to implement fully resolution 253 and declared that any legislation passed or act taken by any state with a view to permitting the importation of any commodity from Southern Rhodesia falling into the scope of 253 would undermine the sanctions and be contrary to the state's obligations under the United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 591, adopted unanimously on 28 November 1986, after recalling resolutions 418 (1977), 421 (1977), 473 (1980) and 558 (1984), the Council strengthened the mandatory arms embargo against apartheid South Africa imposed by Resolution 418, and made it more comprehensive. Resolution 591 sought to clarify vague terms from previous resolutions on the topic.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 318, adopted on July 28, 1972, after reaffirming previous resolutions on the topic, the Council approved the recommendations of the committee established in resolution 253. The Council then condemned all acts violating the provisions of the previous resolutions, called upon all states continuing to have economic and other relations with Southern Rhodesia to stop immediately and demanded that all member states scrupulously carry out their obligations under the previous resolutions. The Resolution then requested the Secretary-General provide all appropriate assistance to the committee established in resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 320, adopted on 29 September 1972, after reaffirming previous resolutions, the Council expressed concern that despite the previous resolutions, several states were covertly and overtly violating the sanctions on Southern Rhodesia. The Council requested that the committee which had been established in resolution 253, consider the type of action which should be taken "in view of the open and persistent refusal of South Africa and Portugal to implement sanctions" and asked for the report no later than 31 January 1973.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 326, adopted on February 2, 1973, concerned with provocative and aggressive acts committed by Southern Rhodesia against Zambia and disturbed by the continued military intervention of South Africa in Rhodesia, the Council condemned all acts of provocation and harassment against Zambia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 333, adopted on May 22, 1973, after reiterating previous statements and admitting that previous measures had yet failed to bring about the end of the "illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia" the Council condemned South Africa and Portugal for failing to co-operate with the implementation of sanctions and requested that urgent action be taken to implement them. The Council then requested that states with legislation permitting importation from Rhodesia repeal it immediately and called upon states to enact and enforce legislation against any person who tries to evade of commit a breach of sanctions by:
United Nations Security Council Resolution 388, adopted unanimously on April 6, 1976, reaffirmed previous resolutions on the topic, including the conclusion that the situation in Rhodesia constituted a threat to international peace and security. The council decided to expand its sanctions regime to include;
United Nations Security Council Resolution 403, adopted on January 14, 1977, after hearing representations from the Minister of External Affairs of Botswana, condemned attacks by the "illegal minority regime" in Southern Rhodesia. The resolution recalled previous resolutions on the topic, including the right to self-determination of the people of Southern Rhodesia.
In United Nations Security Council Resolution 423, adopted on March 14, 1978, after recalling its resolutions on Southern Rhodesia, particularly 415 (1977), the Council condemned attempts by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia to retain power and prevent the independence of Zimbabwe. It also criticised the country's executions of political prisoners and actions against neighbouring countries.
United Nations Security Council resolution 445, adopted on 8 March 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978) and 437 (1978), and hearing representations from various countries, the Council expressed its concern about the military operations undertaken by the "illegal regime" against countries both bordering and non-contiguous with Southern Rhodesia. The Council was also indignant at the execution and sentences against persons under repressive laws.
United Nations Security Council resolution 448, adopted on 30 April 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978), 437 (1978) and 445 (1979), the Council declared that the recent "sham" elections held in Southern Rhodesia by the "illegal racist regime" were illegal and the results thereof would be null and void.
United Nations Security Council resolution 460, adopted on 21 December 1979, after taking note of the Lancaster House Agreement, the Council decided to terminate measures taken against Southern Rhodesia in resolutions 232 (1966) and 253 (1968) and any subsequent resolutions. The resolution deplored the "loss of life, waste and suffering" over the past 14 years caused by the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1021, adopted on November 22, 1995, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, particularly resolutions 713 (1991) and 727 (1992), the Council set a date of March 13, 1996, for the suspension of most aspects of the arms embargo on the former Yugoslavia. Resolution 1074 (1996) terminated the remaining measures of the embargo.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1382, adopted unanimously on 29 November 2001, after recalling all previous resolutions on Iraq, including resolutions 986 (1995), 1284 (1999), 1352 (2001) and 1360 (2001) concerning the Oil-for-Food Programme, the Council extended provisions relating to the export of Iraqi petroleum or petroleum products in return for humanitarian aid for a further 180 days.