Mansa Wati (French: "Ouati") was the third mansa of the Mali Empire reigning from 1270 to 1274.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Mansa is a Mandinka word meaning "sultan" (king) or "emperor". It is particularly associated with the Keita Dynasty of the Mali Empire, which dominated West Africa from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. Powers of the mansa included the right to dispense justice and to monopolize trade, particularly in gold. Sundiata Keita was the first to assume the title of mansa (emperor), which was passed down through the Keita line with few interruptions well into the 15th century. Other notable mansas include his son Wali Keita and the powerful Mansa Musa, whose hajj helped define a new direction for the Empire. The succession of the Mali Empire is primarily known through Tunisian historian ibn Khaldun's History of the Berbers.
The Mali Empire was an empire in West Africa from c. 1235 - 1400. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th-century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, 14th-century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th-century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus. The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition, through storytellers known as griots.
Mansa Wati was one of two adopted children from among Sundjata's generals. He was raised in the royal court as a prince alongside the previous mansa Uli and another adopted sibling named Khalifa. Like any blood member of the Keita clan, he was eligible for the throne and fought for it against Khalifa after Mansa Wali's death shortly after his return from the hajj. Wati succeeded in gaining the throne but ruled only four, tumultuous years. By the time of his death in 1274, the empire of Sundjata was in ruins.
With Wati out of the way, Khalifa returned to the capital of Niani and seized the throne, sidelining Sundjata's brother again. Mansa Wati is remembered as a bad ruler, and Khalifa would prove even worse.
Mansa Khalifa was the fourth mansa of the Mali Empire. He ruled the empire for a year from 1274 to his assassination in 1275.
| Mansa of the Mali Empire |
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Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Islamic Mali Empire. At the time of Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle (Mali) and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including "Emir of Melle", "Lord of the Mines of Wangara", "Conqueror of Ghanata", and at least a dozen others. Mansa Musa conquered 24 cities, each with surrounding districts containing villages and estates. During his reign, Mali may have been the largest producer of gold in the world; it was at a point of exceptional demand for the commodity. One of the richest people in history, he is known to have been enormously wealthy; reported as being inconceivably rich by contemporaries, Time magazine reported: "There's really no way to put an accurate number on his wealth."
Sundiata Keita was a puissant prince and founder of the Mali Empire. The famous Malian ruler Mansa Musa, who made a pilgrimage to Mecca, was his great-nephew.
Mansa Uli, also known as Ali or Wali in Arab sources, was the second mansa of the Mali Empire.
Abu Bakr, also known as Abubakari I or Manding Bory, was the fifth Mansa (Emperor) of the Mali Empire, reigning from 1275 to 1285.
Mansa Sakura or Mansa Sakoura was the sixth mansa of the Mali Empire.
The Battle of Kirina, also known as the Battle of Krina or Siege of Karina, was a confrontation between the Sosso king Sumanguru Kanté and the Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita. Sundiata Keita's forces roundly defeated those of Sumanguru Kanté, guaranteeing the pre-eminence of Keita's new Mali Empire over Africa.
Mansa Camba, also known as Mansa Kassa, briefly acted as mansa of the Mali Empire in 1360. Nephew of the powerful Mansa Kankan Musa I and son of Mansa Suleyman and his principal wife Kassi, Kassa assumed the throne following his father's 1360 death. He was succeeded the same year by Mansa Maghan's son Mari Diata II. Tesfaun Kassa.
Suleyman Keita was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1341 to 1360. The brother of the powerful Kankan Musa I, he succeeded Musa's son Maghan to the throne in 1341. His son Kassa briefly assumed the throne following his death in 1360, but was succeeded the same year by Maghan's son Mari Diata II.
Mari Diata II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1360 to 1374.
Musa II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1374 to 1387.
Maghan II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1387 to 1389. He was the son of Mansa Mari Diata II and the brother of Mansa Musa II.
Mansa Sandaki or Sandaki Mari Djata, also known as Sandiki or Santigi, was a mansa of the Mali Empire from 1389 to 1390.
Gao was Mansa of the Mali Empire from 1300 to 1305.
Mansa Mohammed ibn Gao was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1305 to 1310.
Mansa Uli II, also known as Gbèré, was the twentieth mansa of the Mali Empire. He ruled over the realm during the later half of the 15th century.
Mansa Mahmud Keita IV was the last emperor of the Mali Empire according to the Tarikh al-Sudan. Prior to his rule there was a vacancy of some sort, indicated by the long period of the time in which neither written or oral sources give a ruler. We do know that more than one person made a claim for the throne, which caused the Sankar-Zouma and Farima-Soura to refuse aid to Mansa Mahmud IV and the Keita family, on his military operation against Jenne.
The military history of the Mali Empire is that of the armed forces of the Mali Empire, which dominated Western Africa from the mid 13th to the late 15th century. The military culture of the empire's driving force, the Mandinka people, influenced many later states in West Africa including break-away powers such as the Songhay and Jolof empires. Institutions from the Mali Empire also survived in the 19th century army of Samory Ture who saw himself as the heir to Old Mali's legacy.
In the ancient African oral tradition of the Epic of Sundjata, Balla Fasséké is Sundiata Keita's griot. King Naré Maghann Konaté offered his son Sundiata a griot, Balla Fasséké, to advise him in his reign.