The Wawashkamo Golf Club is a nine-hole links golf course on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. The course was laid out by Alex Smith in 1898. The golf course retains many of the features of a nineteenth-century golf links, including a relatively treeless layout, comparatively short holes, and very long rough. Smith, a native Scotsman from Carnoustie, was familiar with the links courses of his boyhood home.
A links is the oldest style of golf course, first developed in Scotland. The word "links" comes via the Scots language from the Old English word hlinc : "rising ground, ridge" and refers to an area of coastal sand dunes and sometimes to open parkland. Links land is typically characterised by dunes, an undulating surface, and a sandy soil unsuitable for arable farming but which readily supports various indigenous browntop bent and red fescue grasses, that result in the firm turf associated with links courses and the 'running' game (the hard surface typical of the links-style course allows balls to "run" out much farther than on softer turf course after a fairway landing- often players will land the ball well before the green and allow it to run up onto the green rather than landing it on the green in the more targeted-landing style used on softer surfaces. It also retains this more general meaning in standard Scottish English. It can be treated as singular even though it has an "s" at the end and occurs in place names that precede the development of golf, for example Lundin Links, Fife.
Mackinac Island is an island and resort area, covering 3.8 square miles (9.8 km2) in land area, in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located in Lake Huron, at the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac, between the state's Upper and Lower Peninsulas. The island was home to an Odawa settlement before European exploration began in the 17th century. It served a strategic position as a center on the commerce of the Great Lakes fur trade. This led to the establishment of Fort Mackinac on the island by the British during the American Revolutionary War. It was the site of two battles during the War of 1812.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, Michigan, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, and is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies.
Wawashkamo was laid out on a farmer's field that had been the site of the 1814 Battle of Mackinac Island. Separate historical markers commemorate both the golf links and the battlefield. The name of the club and course comes from the Anishinaabe word waawaashkaamon for the act of 'walking a crooked trail'.
Anishinaabe is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in what is known today as Canada and the United States. These include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe, Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and Algonquin peoples. The Anishinaabeg speak Anishinaabemowin, or Anishinaabe languages that belong to the Algonquian language family. They historically lived in the Northeast Woodlands and Subarctic.
Longtime club pro Frank Dufina is believed to have had the longest tie between a course and a professional in U.S. golfing history. It spanned 70 years, from 1898 to 1968.
Frank Dufina was an American professional golfer of Chippewa descent in the early years of the sport in the United States.
Wawashkamo was honored as one of "America's Historic Golf Landmarks" by Golf Digest in 1996. The course is contained within Mackinac Island State Park.
Golf Digest is a monthly golf magazine published by Condé Nast Publications in the United States. It is a generalist golf publication covering recreational golf and men's and women's competitive golf. Condé Nast Publications also publishes the more specialized Golf for Women, Golf World and Golf World Business. The magazine started in 1950, and was sold to The New York Times Company in 1969. The Times company sold their magazine division to Condé Nast in 2001. The headquarters of Golf Digest is in Des Moines, Iowa.
Mackinac Island State Park is a state park located on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. A Lake Huron island, it is near the Straits of Mackinac. The island park encompasses 2.81 mi² (7.28 km²), which is approximately 80% of the island's total area of 3.78 mi² (9.78 km²). The park is also within the boundaries of the city of Mackinac Island and has permanent residents within its boundaries. M-185 circles the perimeter of the park as the only motorless highway in the state due to the island's ban of automobiles. The park is governed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the Mackinac Island State Park Commission. On July 15, 2009, the park celebrated its 20 millionth visitor.
Mackinac County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,113. The county seat is St. Ignace. Formerly known as Michilimackinac County, in 1818 it was one of the first counties of the Michigan Territory, as it had long been a center of French and British colonial fur trading, a Catholic church and Protestant mission, and associated settlement.
Mackinac Island is a city in Mackinac County in the U.S. state of Michigan. In the 2010 census, the city had a permanent population of 492, although there are thousands of seasonal workers and tourists during the summer months.
Fort Holmes is a fortified earthen redoubt located on the highest point of Mackinac Island. Originally built in 1814 by British forces during the War of 1812, the redoubt was improved by that army throughout the course of the war (1812–1814) to help defend the adjacent Fort Mackinac from a possible attack by the U.S. Army.
Alexander Smith was a Scottish-American professional golfer who played in the late 19th and early 20th century. He was a member of a famous Scottish golfing family. His brother Willie won the U.S. Open in 1899, and Alex won it in both 1906 and 1910. Like many British professionals of his era he spent much of his adult life working as a club professional in the United States.
The Battle of Mackinac Island was a British victory in the War of 1812. Before the war, Fort Mackinac had been an important American trading post in the straits between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. It was important for its influence and control over the Native American tribes in the area, which was sometimes referred to in historical documents as "Michilimackinac".
Myopia Hunt Club is a foxhunting and private country club in the northeastern United States, located in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, northeast of Boston. In the early years of the U.S. Open, the club hosted it four times: 1898, 1901, 1905, and 1908.
The Maidstone Club is a private country club on the Atlantic Ocean in the village of East Hampton, New York. Maidstone has both an 18-hole and 9-hole private golf course.
The Los Angeles Country Club is a golf and country club in the Western United States, located in Los Angeles, California.
Charles Blair Macdonald was a major figure in early American golf. He built the first 18-hole course in the United States, was a driving force in the founding of the United States Golf Association, won the first U.S. Amateur championship, and later built some of the most influential golf courses in the United States, to the extent that he is considered the father of American golf course architecture. He is a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame.
National Golf Links of America is a prestigious links-style golf course in Southampton, New York, located on Long Island between Shinnecock Hills Golf Club and Peconic Bay. Though the course is noted for hosting the initial Walker Cup in 1922, which the United States won 8 and 4, it has never hosted a major men's championship. The Walker Cup was again held at National in 2013. The private club has been called "America's snootiest golf course" due to its exclusive nature.
The Garden City Golf Club is a private golf course in Garden City, New York. The club was founded in 1899, and is also known as the "Garden City Men's Club" or simply the "Men's Club" to distinguish it from the Garden City Country Club, and Cherry Valley Club, all of which are located in Garden City, NY. It remains one of the few men-only golf clubs in the United States.
Midlothian Country Club is a golf course in Midlothian, Illinois. It is located 18 miles (29 km) southwest of Chicago and built on 208 acres (84 ha) of land. Designed by Herbert J. Tweedie and opened in 1898. The course was updated by the Ken Killian and Richard P. Nugent design team. In 2003, 82 bunkers on the course were renovated by architect Bob Lohmann of Lohmann Golf Designs and its construction division, Golf Creations.
The 1901 U.S. Open was the seventh U.S. Open, held June 14–17 at Myopia Hunt Club in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, northeast of Boston. Willie Anderson won the first of his four U.S. Open titles in a playoff over Alex Smith.
The 1898 U.S. Open was the fourth U.S. Open, held June 17–18 at Myopia Hunt Club in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, northeast of Boston. Fred Herd captured his only major title, seven strokes ahead of runner-up Alex Smith.
Michael Dousman (1771–1854) was an American fur trader and merchant with business interests in and around Mackinac Island during the War of 1812 period.
James Cameron Maiden was a Scottish-American professional golfer. He was born in Carnoustie, Scotland, the son of a payroll clerk at a local foundry. He emigrated from Scotland to the United States in 1901. He won the 1906 Ohio Open and the Eastern PGA in 1909. In 1924 he won the Long Island Open, a PGA Tour event at the time. He was a founding member of the PGA of America in 1916.
Henry "Harry" Gullane was a Scottish professional golfer. Gullane finished in eighth place in the 1899 U.S. Open, held 14–15 September 1899, at Baltimore Country Club in Baltimore, Maryland.
Frank Russel Rounds was a carpenter on Mackinac Island and is known for building the Round Island Lighthouse - one of the most photographed lighthouses in the world. He also has many buildings on the island to his credit including the Little Stone Church, the boardwalk, and the Wawashkamo golf club.
Richmond County Country Club (RCCC) is a private country club in Staten Island, New York. The club includes a golf course, tennis courts, an aquatic facility, and two clubhouses. The golf course and the main clubhouse have impressive views of New York Harbor, the Atlantic Ocean, and the New Jersey highlands. For more than a century Richmond County has been the only private county club in New York City and is one of the oldest in the United States.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.