The Alfabeto Unificado para a Escrita do Caboverdiano (Unified Alphabet for Cape Verdean Writing), commonly known as ALUPEC, is the alphabet that was officially recognizedby the Cape Verdean government to write Cape Verdean Creole.
The ALUPEC is a phonetic writing system based on the Latin script and states only which letters should be used to represent each sound. The system does not establish rules for spelling (orthography). For that reason, Cape Verdean creole writing is not standardized; the same word or the same sentence may appear written in different ways. Cape Verdeans write idiosyncratically — that is, each person writes in his or her own dialect, sociolect, and idiolect.
The descriptive texts concerning the ALUPECclaim that it is “a system composed by 23 letters and four digraphs”. What those texts do not specify is that the ALUPEC also includes the letter Y and the digraph RR.
Older documents, such as the 1994
A B S D E F G H I J DJ L LH M N NH N̈ O P K R T U V X TX Z
Later documents (after 1998)
A B D DJ E F G H I J K L LH M N NH N̈ O P R S T TX U V X Z
The ALUPEC comes close to a perfect phonetic system in that almost every letter represents only one sound and almost every sound is represented by only one letter. The vowels may have a graphic accent, but the system does not consider letters with accents as separate letters.
|like a in Portuguese pá|
or like a in (European) Portuguese para
|á||/a/||like a in Portuguese pá|
|â||/ɐ/||like a in (European) Portuguese para|
|b||/b/||like b in English but|
|d||/d/||like d in Portuguese dedo|
|dj||/dʒ/||like j in English just|
|e||/e/ *||like e in Portuguese dedo, |
never like i in Portuguese filho
* see notes on Barlavento usage
|é||/ɛ/||like e in Portuguese ferro|
|ê||/e/||like e in Portuguese dedo|
|f||/f/||like f in English for|
|g||/ɡ/||always like g in English go, |
never like s in English pleasure
|h||used only in the digraphs lh and nh|
|like i in Portuguese vi|
or like y in English yes
|í||/i/||like i in Portuguese vi|
|j||/ʒ/||like s in English measure|
|k||/k/||like c in Portuguese caco|
|l||/l/||like l in French elle|
|lh||/ʎ/||like lh in Portuguese filho|
|m||/m/||like m in English me|
|n||/n/||like n in Portuguese não|
|nh||/ɲ/||like nh in Portuguese ninho|
(n with diaeresis)
|/ŋ/||like ng in English king|
|o||/o/||like o in Portuguese amor|
never like u in Portuguese tu
|ó||/ɔ/||like o in Portuguese porta|
|ô||/o/||like o in Portuguese amor|
|p||/p/||like p in Portuguese para|
|like r in Portuguese porta|
or like r in Portuguese rato
|rr||/ʀ/||like rr in Portuguese ferro|
|s||/s/ *||like s in Portuguese sim, |
never like z in Portuguese zero
* see notes on Barlavento usage
|t||/t/||like t in Portuguese tu|
|tx||/tʃ/||like ch in English chair|
|like u in Portuguese tu|
or like w in English wet
|ú||/u/||like u in Portuguese tu|
|v||/v/||like v in English vain|
|x||/ʃ/||like sh in English ship, |
never like the Portuguese words sexo, próximo or exame
|z||/z/||like z in Portuguese zero|
|word with the phoneme /e/ indeed||translation into English||Word with the phoneme elided||comparison with the same word|
in Sotavento Creoles
|translation into English|
|imaginary bird that|
haunts children (Pt: abujão)
|to defy someone|
with the chest
|to step on|
|to put in place,|
|his / her||se|
The ALUPEC emerged in 1994, from the alphabet proposed by the Colóquio Linguístico de Mindelo, in 1979.
On 20 July 1998, the ALUPEC was approvedby the Conselho de Ministros de Cabo Verde, for a five-year trial period. According to the same council, the ALUPEC would “take into account the diversity of the Cape Verdean Language in all the islands, and only after that trial period its introduction in schools would be considered”.
In 2005, the ALUPEC was recognized As of 2016 [update] ) only alphabet to attain such status. Nevertheless, the same law allows the usage of alternative writing models, "as long they are presented in a systematized and scientific way".by the Cape Verdean government as a viable system for writing the Cape Verdean Creole, becoming the first (and,
In 2009, Decree-Law No. 8/2009 officially institutionalized the use of the ALUPEC.
In spite of having been officially recognized by the Government, the usage of ALUPEC is neither official, neither mandatory.
A diacritic is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.
Latin phonology continually evolved over the centuries, making it difficult for speakers in one era to know how Latin was spoken before then. A given phoneme may be represented by different letters in different periods. This article deals primarily with modern scholarship's best reconstruction of Classical Latin's phonemes (phonology) and the pronunciation and spelling used by educated people in the late Roman Republic. This article then touches upon later changes and other variants. Knowledge of how Latin was pronounced comes from Roman grammar books, common misspellings by Romans, transcriptions into other ancient languages, and from how pronunciation has evolved in derived Romance languages.
The Thai script is the abugida used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many other languages spoken in Thailand. The Thai alphabet itself has 44 consonant symbols, 16 vowel symbols that combine into at least 32 vowel forms and four tone diacritics to create characters mostly representing syllables.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet. In English, it is used for loanwords, romanization or occasionally as a pronunciation aid in poetry.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch Caribbean. It is the most widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands having official status in Aruba and Curaçao. Papiamento is also a recognised language in the Dutch public bodies of Bonaire, Sint-Eustatius and Saba.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet. The spelling system is issued by government decree and is compulsory for all government documentation and educational establishments.
Cape Verdean Creole is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. It is also called Kriolu or Kriol by its native speakers. It is the native creole language of virtually all Cape Verdeans and is used as a second creole language by the Cape Verdean diaspora.
Santiago Creole is the name given to the Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly on Santiago Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch of Creole.
Cape Verdean Portuguese is the variety of Portuguese spoken in Cape Verde.
Brava Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Brava Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch. The speakers of this form of Capeverdean Creole are 8,000. One of the least spoken being seventh place and one of the firsts to have written literature, in which Eugénio Tavares wrote some of his poems.
Santo Antão Creole, is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Santo Antão Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Barlavento Creoles branch. It is ranked third of nine in the number of speakers and it is before Fogo and after the neighbouring São Vicente.
The diaeresis and the umlaut are two different homoglyphic diacritical marks. They both consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. The diaeresis was abolished by the last Orthography Agreement. Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes.
Fogo Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Fogo of Cape Verde. It has around 50,000 speakers or nearly 5% of Cape Verdean Creole speakers including the diaspora's second language speakers. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch. The rankings of this form of Cape Verdean Creole is fourth after Santo Antão and ahead of Sal.
Maio Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Maio Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch. It numbers the entire island population which includes a small part which also speaks Portuguese, in 2005, the percentage was 1.36%.
Boa Vista Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Boa Vista Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Barlavento Creoles branch. The speakers of this form of Cape Verdean Creole are 5,000 in 2007 and is the least spoken form of Creole in the language. Literature is rarely recorded but one of the speakers who was born on the island is Germano Almeida.
São Nicolau Creole is the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the São Nicolau Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Barlavento Creoles branch. The speakers of this form of Cape Verdean Creole are 15,000 and it is the fifth most spoken form of Creole in the language. Literature is rarely recorded but the form of the Capeverdean Creole has been recorded in music.
Tomé Varela da Silva is a Cape Verdean writer, poet, philosopher and anthropologist which he studies in an orally tradition and the musical heritage of Cape Verde in which he favored for the usage of Cape Verdean Creole in literature. Himself, he is the author of several poets and stories. His most important works were published in the 1980s and the 1990s
Manuel Veiga is a Cape Verdean writer, a linguist which references in the national and international level and a politician. He was minister of culture of his country from 2004 to 2011.