All Saints' Massacre

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All Saints' Massacre
Native name Masacre de Todos Santos
Date November 1, 1979 (1979-11-01)
Location La Paz, Bolivia
Type Violent crackdown
Organised by Alberto Natusch Busch
Outcome Central Obrera Boliviana (COB) trade union confederation launched a campaign of mass protests
Deaths 100
Non-fatal injuries 204
Missing 20

The All Saints' massacre (Spanish : Masacre de Todos Santos) is the name given to the violent crack-down against popular protests by the military coup regime of Alberto Natusch Busch that seized power on November 1 (All Saints' Day), 1979. In response to the November 1 coup, the Central Obrera Boliviana (COB) trade union confederation launched a campaign of mass protests, which were met by violence from the military. [1]

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

All Saints Day Christian feast day

All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, the Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown. In Western Christianity, it is celebrated on 1 November by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Methodist Church, the Lutheran Church, the Reformed Church, and other Protestant churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church and associated Eastern Catholic Churches and Byzantine Lutheran Churches celebrate it on the first Sunday after Pentecost. Oriental Orthodox churches of Chaldea and associated Eastern Catholic churches celebrate All Saints' Day on the first Friday after Easter.

The week after the coup, on November 5-6, 1979, Natusch Busch gave orders to intensify the crack-down. The soldiers of colonel Doria Medina were allowed to act without control in La Paz. Riot control vehicles were sent out into various parts of the city. A helicopter, rented from the U.S. company Groves Limited, was used to shoot down protestors. However, these measures did not prevent the continuation of mass protests. La Paz residents took to the streets, pelting rocks against the armed forces and constructed barricades. [2]

La Paz City in Bolivia

La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz, also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. With an estimated 789,541 residents as of 2015, La Paz is the third-most populous city in Bolivia. Its metropolitan area, which is formed by La Paz, El Alto and Viacha, makes up the most populous urban area in Bolivia, with a population of 2.3 million. It is also the capital of the La Paz Department.

More than 100 people were killed, 204 injured and 20 'disappeared' during the brief existence of the Natusch Busch regime (Dunkerley states that more than 200 were killed, and 125 'disappeared'). [1] [2] The majority of the victims were killed during the days of November 5 and 6, and almost all of them in the city of La Paz. The number of deaths of the two-week-long rule of Natusch Busch is comparable to the seven years of military rule under Hugo Banzer. [2]

Forced disappearance when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization

In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.

Hugo Banzer Bolivian president

Hugo Banzer Suárez was a Bolivian politician, military general and President of Bolivia. He held the Bolivian presidency twice: from 1971 to 1978, as a dictator; and then again from 1997 to 2001, as constitutional President.

Sixteen days after the beginning of the coup, the military regime stepped down as a result of the popular protests. [1] As of 2008, the perpetrators of the killings have not been brought to justice. [3]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Asociación de Familiares de Detenidos Desaparecidos y Mártires por la Liberación Nacional (Bolivia), Fundación Solón, and Capítulo Boliviano de Derechos Humanos, Democracia y Desarrollo. Informe sobre las desapariciones forzadas en Bolivia. La Paz: ASOFAMD, 2008. p. 20
  2. 1 2 3 Dunkerley, James, and Rose Marie Vargas Jastram. Rebelión en las venas: la lucha política en Bolivia . La Paz, Bolivia: Plural, 2003. p. 326
  3. Heridos y olvidados de los que gobernaron Bolivia [ permanent dead link ]