|Native name||Masacre de Todos Santos|
|Date||November 1, 1979|
|Location||La Paz, Bolivia|
|Organised by||Alberto Natusch Busch|
|Outcome||Central Obrera Boliviana (COB) trade union confederation launched a campaign of mass protests|
The All Saints' massacre (Spanish : Masacre de Todos Santos) is the name given to the violent crack-down against popular protests by the military coup regime of Alberto Natusch Busch that seized power on November 1 (All Saints' Day), 1979. In response to the November 1 coup, the Central Obrera Boliviana (COB) trade union confederation launched a campaign of mass protests, which were met by violence from the military.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, the Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown. In Western Christianity, it is celebrated on 1 November by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Methodist Church, the Lutheran Church, the Reformed Church, and other Protestant churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church and associated Eastern Catholic Churches and Byzantine Lutheran Churches celebrate it on the first Sunday after Pentecost. Oriental Orthodox churches of Chaldea and associated Eastern Catholic churches celebrate All Saints' Day on the first Friday after Easter.
The week after the coup, on November 5-6, 1979, Natusch Busch gave orders to intensify the crack-down. The soldiers of colonel Doria Medina were allowed to act without control in La Paz. Riot control vehicles were sent out into various parts of the city. A helicopter, rented from the U.S. company Groves Limited, was used to shoot down protestors. However, these measures did not prevent the continuation of mass protests. La Paz residents took to the streets, pelting rocks against the armed forces and constructed barricades.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz, also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. With an estimated 789,541 residents as of 2015, La Paz is the third-most populous city in Bolivia. Its metropolitan area, which is formed by La Paz, El Alto and Viacha, makes up the most populous urban area in Bolivia, with a population of 2.3 million. It is also the capital of the La Paz Department.
More than 100 people were killed, 204 injured and 20 'disappeared' during the brief existence of the Natusch Busch regime (Dunkerley states that more than 200 were killed, and 125 'disappeared').The majority of the victims were killed during the days of November 5 and 6, and almost all of them in the city of La Paz. The number of deaths of the two-week-long rule of Natusch Busch is comparable to the seven years of military rule under Hugo Banzer.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Hugo Banzer Suárez was a Bolivian politician, military general and President of Bolivia. He held the Bolivian presidency twice: from 1971 to 1978, as a dictator; and then again from 1997 to 2001, as constitutional President.
Sixteen days after the beginning of the coup, the military regime stepped down as a result of the popular protests.As of 2008, the perpetrators of the killings have not been brought to justice.
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René Barrientos Ortuño was a Bolivian military officer and politician who served as his country's Vice President in 1964 and as its President from 1966 to 1969.
Luis García Meza Tejada was a Bolivian dictator. A native of La Paz, he was a career military officer who rose to the rank of general during the reign of Hugo Banzer (1971–78). Between 1980 and 1981 García Meza was the dictator of Bolivia.
Lidia Gueiler Tejada was the first female President of Bolivia, serving in an interim capacity from 1979 to 1980. She was Bolivia's first and only female Head of State, and the second in American history.
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Germán Busch Becerra was a former Bolivian military officer, hero of the Chaco War, and president of Bolivia between 1937 and 1939. Busch also served as president for three days during May 1936.
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Alberto Natusch Busch was a Bolivian general and dictator of his country for a brief time in November 1979.
The history of Bolivia from 1964 to 1982 is a time of periodic instability under various military dictators. On November 4, 1964 power passed from the elected leader of the Bolivian National Revolution, Víctor Paz Estenssoro to a military junta under vice-president General René Barrientos. Barrientos was elected president in 1966, but died accidentally in a helicopter crash in 1969, leading to a coup in September 1969 by General Ovando, who was overthrown in October 1970 by General Rogelio Miranda who was overthrown a couple of days later by General J.J.Torres, who in turn was overthrown on August 1971 by Hugo Banzer Suárez. Banzer ruled for seven years, initially from 1971 to 1974 with the support of Estenssoro's Nationalist Revolutionary Movement. In 1974, impatient with schisms in the party, he replaced civilians with members of the armed forces and suspended political activities. The economy grew impressively during Banzer's presidency, but demands for greater political freedom undercut his support. He called elections in 1978 and Bolivia once again plunged into turmoil. Juan Pereda ruled for only four months in 1978, but his ascent to the presidency marked the beginning of an even more unstable period in Bolivian history, with nine civilian and military presidents in little over four years (1978–1982). 1982 marked the return to a democratically elected government, with Guido Vildoso as president.
Jenaro Flores Santos, often Genaro Flores Santos, is a Bolivian trade union leader and politician.
Gualberto Vega Yapura was a Bolivian trade unionist. Vega Yapura was the head of the FSTMB miners' union.
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General elections were held in Bolivia on 29 June 1980, the third in three years. As no candidate in the presidential elections received a majority of the vote, the National Congress was required to elect a President on 6 August. With Hernán Siles Zuazo of the Democratic and Popular Union the favourite to win the Congressional ballot, the process was disrupted on 17 July by the military coup led by General Luis García Meza Tejada. However, Meza was pressured to resign on 4 August 1981, resulting in General Celso Torrelio becoming President. In July 1982 he was replaced by General Guido Vildoso, who was named by the high command to return the country to democratic rule. On 17 September 1982, during a general strike that brought the country close to civil war, the military decided to step down, to reconvene the National Congress elected in 1980, and to accept its choice of President. Accordingly, the National Congress revalidated the 1980 election results on 23 September and overwhelmingly elected Hernán Siles Zuazo as President on 5 October. He subsequently assumed the presidency on 10 October 1982.
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Elsa Cladera de Bravo. (1922-2005) was a Bolivian trade union leader and educator, leader of the teachers organisation in Bolivia, delegate at the "Asamblea del Pueblo" in 1971, engaged in the work for women's emancipation.
The 2019 Venezuelan protests are a collection of protests that have been organised, since 11 January, as a coordinated effort to remove Nicolás Maduro from the presidency. Demonstrations began following Maduro's controversial second inauguration, developing into a presidential crisis between Maduro and National Assembly president Juan Guaidó. The protests also include counter-demonstrations organised by those who support Maduro and have taken to the street to support him.
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