Band VI

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Band VI is a radio frequency range within the super high frequency (SHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. [1] [2] [3]

Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency range from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second. This is roughly between the upper limit of audio frequencies and the lower limit of infrared frequencies; these are the frequencies at which energy from an oscillating current can radiate off a conductor into space as radio waves. Different sources specify different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range.

Super high frequency (SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). This band of frequencies is also known as the centimetre band or centimetre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten centimetres. These frequencies fall within the microwave band, so radio waves with these frequencies are called microwaves. The small wavelength of microwaves allows them to be directed in narrow beams by aperture antennas such as parabolic dishes and horn antennas, so they are used for point-to-point communication and data links and for radar. This frequency range is used for most radar transmitters, wireless LANs, satellite communication, microwave radio relay links, and numerous short range terrestrial data links. They are also used for heating in industrial microwave heating, medical diathermy, microwave hyperthermy to treat cancer, and to cook food in microwave ovens.

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

One source states that Band VI ranges from 11.7 to 12.5 GHz, [1] whilst other earlier sources state the range as 11.7 to 12.7 GHz. [2] [3] The band is used for direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) [1] and amateur radio astronomy. [4]

Radio astronomy subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for the Big Bang theory, was made through radio astronomy.

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Microwave form of electromagnetic radiation

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (1 m) and 300 GHz (1 mm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations.

The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under", because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. In radar applications, it ranges from 12-18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002.

Ultra high frequency The range 300-3000 MHz of the electromagnetic spectrum

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency (SHF) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception. They are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, and numerous other applications.

Amateur television

Amateur television (ATV) is the transmission of broadcast quality video and audio over the wide range of frequencies of radio waves allocated for radio amateur (Ham) use. ATV is used for non-commercial experimentation, pleasure, and public service events. Ham TV stations were on the air in many cities before commercial television stations came on the air. Various transmission standards are used, these include the broadcast transmission standards of NTSC in North America and Japan, and PAL or SECAM elsewhere, utilizing the full refresh rates of those standards. ATV includes the study of building of such transmitters and receivers, and the study of radio propagation of signals travelling between transmitting and receiving stations.

The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) designation for the range of frequencies in the radio spectrum from 1 to 2 gigahertz (GHz).

The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz). Thus it crosses the conventional boundary between the UHF and SHF bands at 3.0 GHz. The S band is used by airport surveillance radar for air traffic control, weather radar, surface ship radar, and some communications satellites, especially those used by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The 10 cm radar short-band ranges roughly from 1.55 to 5.2 GHz. The S band also contains the 2.4–2.483 GHz ISM band, widely used for low power unlicensed microwave devices such as cordless phones, wireless headphones (Bluetooth), wireless networking (WiFi), garage door openers, keyless vehicle locks, baby monitors as well as for medical diathermy machines and microwave ovens. India’s regional satellite navigation network (IRNSS) broadcasts on 2.483778 to 2.500278 GHz.

The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in communication engineering, the frequency range of the X band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0–11.2 GHz. In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE at 8.0–12.0 GHz. The X band is used for radar, satellite communication, and wireless computer networks.

Radio spectrum part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz to 3000 GHz (3 THz)

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 30 Hertz to 300 GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves, are extremely widely used in modern technology, particularly in telecommunication. To prevent interference between different users, the generation and transmission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

The 13 centimeter, 2.3 GHz or 2.4 GHz band is a portion of the UHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use on a secondary basis. The amateur radio band is between 2300 MHz and 2450 MHz. The amateur satellite band is between 2400 MHz and 2450 MHz, and its use by satellite operations is on a non-interference basis to other radio users. The license privileges of amateur radio operators include the use of frequencies and a wide variety of modes within these ranges for telecommunication. The allocations are the same in all three ITU Regions.

The 1 millimeter band is a portion of the EHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use. The amateur radio and amateur satellite band is between 241 GHz and 250 GHz. Amateurs operate on a primary basis between 248 GHz and 250 GHz and on a secondary basis in the rest of the band. Also, amateurs must protect the radio astronomy service from harmful interference between 241 GHz and 248 GHz. The ITU's allocations are the same in all three ITU Regions.

The 3 centimeter or 10 GHz band is a portion of the SHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use on a secondary basis. The amateur radio band is between 10.00 GHz and 10.50 GHz, and the amateur satellite band is between 10.45 GHz and 10.50 GHz. The allocations are the same in all three ITU regions.

The 1.2 centimeter or 24 GHz band is a portion of the SHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use. The amateur radio band is between 24.00 GHz and 24.25 GHz, and the amateur satellite band is between 24.00 GHz and 24.05 GHz. Amateurs operate on a primary basis between 24.00 GHz and 24.05 GHz and on a secondary basis in the rest of the band. Amateur stations must accept harmful interference from ISM users. The allocations are the same in all three ITU regions.

The 6 millimeter or 47 GHz band is a portion of the EHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use on a primary basis. The amateur radio and amateur satellite band is between 47.0 GHz and 47.2 GHz, and the allocation is the same in all three ITU regions.

The 4 millimeter band is a portion of the EHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use. The amateur radio and amateur satellite band is between 76.0 GHz and 81.0 GHz. Amateurs operate on a primary basis between 77.5 GHz and 78.0 GHz and on a secondary basis in the rest of the band. Also, 81.0 GHz to 81.5 GHz is allocated by ITU footnote 5.561A to the amateur and amateur-satellite services on a secondary basis. The ITU's allocations are the same in all three ITU regions.

The 2 millimeter band is a portion of the EHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use. The amateur radio and amateur satellite band is between 134 GHz and 141 GHz. Amateurs operate on a primary basis between 134 GHz and 136 GHz, and on a secondary basis in the rest of the band. Also, amateurs must protect the radio astronomy service from harmful interference between 136 GHz and 141 GHz. The ITU's allocations are the same in all three ITU Regions.

The 9-centimeter band is a portion of the SHF (microwave) radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use. The amateur radio band, in ITU regions 1 and 2, is between 3,300 MHz and 3,500 MHz, and it is available only on a secondary basis. The amateur satellite band is between 3,400 MHz and 3,410 MHz, and it is only available in ITU Regions 1 and 2, on a non-interference basis to other users. In Germany and Israel, the band 3,400 - 3,475 MHz is also allocated to the amateur service on a secondary basis.

C band (IEEE) 4-8GHz

The C band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz); however, this definition is the one used by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users. The C band is used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi devices, some cordless telephones as well as some surveillance and weather radar systems.

The IEEE K band is a portion of the radio spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 18 to 27 gigahertz (GHz). The range of frequencies in the center of the K band between 18 and 26.5 GHz is absorbed by water vapor in the atmosphere due to its resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, 1.35 cm. Therefore these frequencies experience high atmospheric attenuation and cannot be used for long distance applications. For this reason the original K band has been split into three bands, Ka band, K-band, and Ku band as detailed below.

Submillimeter amateur radio refers to Amateur radio in the sub-millimeter band. In the ITU Table of Frequency Allocations, no formal allocation to any radio service is present above 275 GHz, although the regulations themselves cover up to 3000 GHz and include footnote RR5.565 concerning this range. However, a number of administrations permit amateur radio experimentation within the 275–3000 GHz range on a national basis, under licence conditions that are usually based on RR5.565.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "UK BROADCASTING BANDS" (PDF). TheSkywaves.NET. 2003-01-01. Retrieved 2009-05-20.[ permanent dead link ]
  2. 1 2 "Latest statistics on radio and television broadcasting" (PDF). UNESCO, Division of Statistics on Culture and Communication Office of Statistics. 1987. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  3. 1 2 "SATELLITE BROADCASTING: A ZONED REFLECTOR AERIAL FOR THEDOMESTIC RECEPTION OF BAND VI" (PDF). BBC Research & Development. 1972. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  4. "radioastronomy with a small 12GHz satellitedish". Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers. 2008-09-03. Retrieved 2009-05-20.