Beatallica

Last updated

Beatallica
Beatallica jan 2009 small.JPG
(Left to Right) Ringo Larz, Jaymz Lennfield, Kliff McBurtney, Grg Hammetson
Background information
OriginMilwaukee, Wisconsin
Genres Comedy rock, heavy metal
Years active2001–present
Labels Oglio
Website www.beatallica.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Members"Jaymz Lennfield"
"Grg Hammetson"
"Kliff McBurtney"
"Ringo Larz"
Past members"Krk Hammetson"

Beatallica is a mash-up band that plays music made from combinations of songs of the Beatles and Metallica. [1] A Beatallica song is typically a blend of a Beatles song and a Metallica song with a related title (e.g. "The Thing That Should Not Let It Be", combining The Beatles' "Let It Be" and Metallica's "The Thing That Should Not Be" or "And Justice for All My Loving" combining Metallica's "And Justice for All" and the Beatles' "All My Loving"), though sometimes just a Beatles song will be used as a basis with modified lyrics. The lyrics slip back and forth between the two songs, or occasionally neither, in lieu of original lyrics comically referencing Metallica, heavy metal music, or the heavy metal community. While the scansion and melody are usually Beatles-based, the music is played metal style with some Metallica riffs and solos thrown in. Consistent quirks made in the lyrics also criticize glam metal much in the fashion that thrash metal fans would do, as well as many references to blood. Their version of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" called "I Want to Choke Your Band", is an example of their criticism towards glam metal.

A mashup is a creative work, usually in a form of a song, created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another. To the extent that such works are "transformative" of original content, in the United States they may find protection from copyright claims under the "fair use" doctrine of copyright law.

The Beatles English rock band

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. With a line-up comprising John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they are regarded as the most influential band of all time. The group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form and to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s. Their sound, rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, incorporated elements of classical music and traditional pop in innovative ways. They also pioneered recording techniques and explored music styles ranging from ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, and they came to be seen as embodying the era's socio-cultural movements.

Metallica American heavy metal band

Metallica is an American heavy metal band. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles by vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield and drummer Lars Ulrich, and has been based in San Francisco for most of its career. The group's fast tempos, instrumentals and aggressive musicianship made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Megadeth, Anthrax and Slayer. Metallica's current lineup comprises founding members and primary songwriters Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band.

Contents

Although facing some misunderstandings in the media, members of Metallica itself have repeatedly praised the comedic styling of the group. For example, Kirk Hammett has publicly remarked point-blank, "I think it's cool," and, "It's just fun for me." James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich have also been friendly with the band. [2]

Kirk Hammett American musician

Kirk Lee Hammett is an American musician who has been lead guitarist and a contributing songwriter for the heavy metal band Metallica since 1983. Before joining Metallica he formed and named the band Exodus. In 2003, Hammett was ranked 11th on Rolling Stone's list of The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. In 2009, Hammett was ranked number 15 in Joel McIver's book The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists.

James Hetfield American musician

James Alan Hetfield is an American musician and songwriter best known for being the co-founder, lead vocalist/rhythm guitarist and main songwriter for the American heavy metal band Metallica. Hetfield is mainly known for his intricate rhythm playing, but occasionally performs lead guitar duties and solos, both live and in the studio. Hetfield co-founded Metallica in October 1981 after answering an advertisement by drummer Lars Ulrich in the Los Angeles newspaper The Recycler. Metallica has won nine Grammy Awards and released ten studio albums, three live albums, four extended plays and 24 singles.

Lars Ulrich Danish musician

Lars Ulrich is a Danish musician, songwriter, record producer and podcaster. He is best known as the drummer and co-founder of the American heavy metal band Metallica. The son of tennis player Torben Ulrich and grandson of tennis player Einer Ulrich, he also played tennis in his youth and moved to Los Angeles at age 16 to train professionally. However, rather than playing tennis, Ulrich began playing drums. After publishing an advertisement in The Recycler, Ulrich met vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield and formed Metallica. Along with Hetfield, Ulrich has songwriting credits on all of the band's songs. He was the face of the band during the Napster controversy. Later in his career Ulrich began hosting the It's Electric podcast, in which he speaks with other prominent musicians.

History

The project was founded in 2001 by original guitarist "Krk Hammetson" and singer "Jaymz Lennfield". [1] The EP A Garage Dayz Nite was recorded for the annual Spoof Fest concert held in Milwaukee, as a memento of that year's concert. A few dozen copies of the EP were handed out to friends. Later that year, one of those CDs made its way to Milwaukee resident Dr. David Dixon, who created a web page that included mp3s of the songs and he named the band "Beatallica". The band was unaware of the webpage until Dixon finally met them in the summer of 2002, carrying a stack of fan emails from all around the world. Beatallica gave the webpage its blessings, and after further urgings from its internet fanbase, recorded the EP Beatallica , also known as The Grey Album, releasing it online on April 1, 2004.

<i>A Garage Dayz Nite</i> 2001 EP by Beatallica

A Garage Dayz Nite, is the first E.P. from Beatallica. It contains 7 tracks, made from combinations of Beatles and Metallica songs. The cover is a parody of The Beatles' second UK album With The Beatles, while the crude handwriting is a reference to that used in Metallica's The $5.98 E.P.: Garage Days Re-Revisited.

Later in 2004, the band (including bassist "Kliff McBurtney" and drummer "Ringo Larz") started to perform at live venues nationally and internationally, with a stage show incorporating elements from both Beatles and Metallica performances. They also played as an opening act for Dream Theater; Mike Portnoy even joined the band on stage playing drums for one song.

Dream Theater American progressive metal band

Dream Theater is an American progressive metal band formed in 1985 under the name Majesty by John Petrucci, John Myung and Mike Portnoy while they attended Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. They subsequently dropped out of their studies to concentrate further on the band that would ultimately become Dream Theater. Though a number of lineup changes followed, the three original members remained together until September 8, 2010, when Portnoy left the band. Mike Mangini was announced as the new permanent drummer on April 29, 2011.

Mike Portnoy American drummer, songwriter

Michael Stephen Portnoy is an American drummer and songwriter primarily known as the former drummer, backing vocalist, and a co-founder of the progressive metal/rock band Dream Theater. In September 2010, Portnoy announced his departure from Dream Theater after 25 years, with Mike Mangini taking his place as drummer of the band. Since his departure, Portnoy has formed a variety of new bands and projects, including Adrenaline Mob, Flying Colors, The Winery Dogs and Sons of Apollo.

During 2005 and 2006 the band toured around the world, playing over 60 shows, including their first UK show in London on April 26, 2006. Beatallica would go on to perform with likes of Motorhead, Testament, Kreator, Sepultura, LA Guns and play huge summer festivals worldwide, including Milwaukee's Summerfest, Germany's Earthshaker Festival, The Netherlands' Kings of Metal festival, and Korea's Busan International Rock Festival.

Motörhead English rock band

Motörhead were an English rock band formed in June 1975 by bassist, singer, and songwriter Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister, who was the sole constant member, guitarist Larry Wallis and drummer Lucas Fox. The band are often considered a precursor to the new wave of British heavy metal, which re-energised heavy metal in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Though several guitarists and drummers have played in Motörhead, most of their best-selling albums and singles feature the work of Phil "Philthy Animal" Taylor on drums and "Fast" Eddie Clarke on guitars.

Testament (band) American metal band

Testament is an American thrash metal band from Berkeley, California. Formed in 1982 under the name Legacy, the band's current lineup comprises guitarists Eric Peterson and Alex Skolnick, lead vocalist Chuck Billy, drummer Gene Hoglan, and bassist Steve Di Giorgio. Since its inception, Testament has had numerous lineup changes, leaving Peterson as the only constant member. Billy replaced original singer Steve "Zetro" Souza in 1986, prior to the recording of their first studio album, The Legacy, and has been a member of the band since. He and Peterson are the only members to appear on all of Testament's studio albums.

Kreator German thrash metal band

Kreator is a German thrash metal band from Essen, formed in 1982. Their current lineup has been the same since 2001: lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Mille Petrozza, bassist Christian Giesler, drummer Jürgen "Ventor" Reil, and lead guitarist Sami Yli-Sirniö. The band's lineup has changed multiple times over its 37-year career, leaving Petrozza as only constant member. Reil is the other original member left in Kreator though he had one hiatus from the band, which lasted from 1994 to 1996.

In 2007, the band's current lineup of Jaymz Lennfield (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Grg Hammetson (lead guitar), Kliff McBurtney (lead bass, backing vocals) and Ringo Larz (drums) went into the studio to re-record many of Krk and Jaymz' original songs and write some new compositions for their official debut Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band .

<i>Sgt. Hetfields Motorbreath Pub Band</i> 2007 studio album by Beatallica

Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band is the first published album from Beatallica. It contains 13 tracks, made from combinations of the Beatles and Metallica songs and was released on Tuesday July 10, 2007. Majority of the tracks are re-recordings of songs from the band's EP releases A Garage Dayz Nite and Beatallica.

May 2008, marked the release of Beatallica's single; "All You Need Is Blood" recorded in 13 languages as a worldwide thank-you to the network of Beatallica fans known as Beatallibangers. The band added Belgium, Czech Republic, and Poland to the list of places they have toured. Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band was released in Poland on the label Metal Mind Productions.

September and October 2008 saw the release of both album Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band and single "All You Need Is Blood" by Sony-ATV in Japan. Both Japanese CD versions contain bonus tracks.

On April 1, 2009 (Beatallica's birthday), Beatallica met Metallica backstage after Metallica's show in Paris, France. This was the first time that both bands had met each other in person. Both bands had communicated with each other over the years, as they continue to do so.

On August 4, 2009, Masterful Mystery Tour , the band's second full-length album was released internationally. An official music video for the first single, Hero of the Day Tripper, was made with the band starring as hesh 1970's superheroes saving a party from the clutches of four Big Sleazers.

On September 9, 2009, Masterful Mystery Tour was released by Sony-ATV in Japan. The Japanese album version includes 2 bonus tracks, live versions of "I Want to Choke Your Band" and "Revol-ooh-tion", recorded live in concert in Milwaukee, WI.

Beatallica performing live in Leipzig, 2009. Beatallica.jpg
Beatallica performing live in Leipzig, 2009.

September 11, 2009 Masterful Mystery Tour was released by the German label Megapress. The CD contains a bonus track, Beatallica's cover of the JBO song "Eine Guten Tag Zum Sterben" (English translation: "A Good Day for Dying"). Also of note is fact that Beatallica recorded this cover song singing in German, making this the second song they have released singing in German. Beatallica's cover version of the song was also included on the JBO 2009 album I Don't Like Metal – I Love It (Limited Edition version that includes a bonus CD).

Winter Plunderband was released on November 17, 2009. It is Beatallica's first ever Holiday Season release. The (EP) album is only available as a CD at Beatallica live shows (very limited pressing) and can also be purchased as a Digital Download which includes Digital Booklet with artwork, lyrics and photos (including Beatallica and Metallica together). The songs included are covers of Paul McCartney’s "Wonderful Christmastime" and John Lennon and Yoko Ono’s "Happy Christmas (War Is Over)" and also the very first two Beatallica original songs "Hella Day For Holiday" and "Heretic".

Beatallica toured Germany in December 2009 supporting JBO who were celebrating their 20th anniversary. During the tour Jaymz would join J.B.O on stage to sing "Ein Guter Tag Zum Sterben" in German. On the final night of the tour in Berlin, J.B.O. (mainly Vito C.) hijacked Beatallica's set by playing AC/DC's song "Highway to Hell" on guitar from backstage. Beatallica had no idea what was going on and thought a CD somehow was being played in error from the soundboard. During J.B.O.'s final set, Beatallica came out on stage wearing J.B.O.'s pink robes, which they stole from their dressing room, and took over the stage dancing around and drinking. Jaymz used a 'Beatallica Arschwaschlappen' to wipe Hannes Holzmann's face, much to the amusement of the sold out audience.

March 5, 2009 saw the release for Beatallica's second (and third) official video entitled "Fuel on the Hill (and Benzin auf dem Berg)".

On April 16, 2013, Beatallica's third album, Abbey Load , was released. Unlike other Beatallica albums, the songs on this album maintain the original lyrics written by the Beatles.

To avoid legal problems, the band maintained a strict non-commercial policy (all songs were available for free download) and shrouded themselves in anonymity (all names mentioned above are stage names, but their real names were revealed in interviews and, hence, also appear in this article). Metallica were aware of the spoof band's existence and never threatened to take any legal action; Lars Ulrich, James Hetfield and Kirk Hammett have all publicly stated that they enjoy Beatallica's music.[ citation needed ]

On February 17, 2005, a cease-and-desist notice was sent to David Dixon (and the band's web host) by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, a company which holds rights to most of The Beatles' catalog. The notice states that the "music", "news" and "merchandise" sections of the official Beatallica website constitute a copyright violation and should therefore be taken down. In response to this, a petition requesting Sony/ATV Music Publishing to retract its threat of legal action was created. The band was saved from further legal action by Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich, who offered to provide assistance with legal negotiations and also asked Metallica's longtime attorney to try to defuse the situation with Sony. Sony ultimately reached an agreement with Beatallica and their new label Oglio Records, and an official Beatallica recording was released in July 2007 entitled Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band .

Members, former members, special guests

NameReference(s)Real nameNotes
Jaymz Lennfield James Hetfield, John Lennon Michael "Tinker" Tierneyvocals, lyrics, songwriting, rhythm guitar
Grg Hammetson III George Harrison, Kirk Hammett Jeff Hamiltonlead guitar, backing vocals
Kliff McBurtney Cliff Burton, Paul McCartney Paul Terrien
Lee Bruso (2004–2005) [3]
Troy Butero (2001–2004)
bass, backing vocals
Ringo Larz Ringo Starr, Lars Ulrich Ryan Charlesdrums; also performs "Lou Reed"'s vocals in a parody of "The View" [4]
Flemball Rasmartin Flemming Rasmussen, George Martin Shane Olivoproducer
Dave Newkid Dave Mustaine, Jason Newsted David Benton [5] touring bassist, backing vocals [6]
Grg HammetsonGeorge Harrison, Kirk HammettJeff Salzman [7] lead guitar, backing vocals (2006–2008)
Krk HammetsonGeorge Harrison, Kirk HammettMichael Brandenburglead guitar, backing vocals (2001–2006)
Diablo Mysterioso L'Angelo Misterioso,unknownguitar, special guest
Marshall [6] John Marshall Sean Williamson [8] guitar, special guest, backing vocals
Joey Nicol Joey Jordison, Jimmie Nicol Mike Portnoy drums, special guest
Billy Prestaine Billy Preston, Dave Mustaine Paul Kneevers [9] keyboards, special guest

Timeline

(note: Kliff McBurtney has been three different people over the course of the band's history, but unlike Grg Hammettson, the name was not changed)

Beatallica

Discography

Until 2007, Beatallica's recordings were only available as MP3 and FLAC downloads.

Related Research Articles

<i>Ride the Lightning</i> 1984 studio album by Metallica

Ride the Lightning is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica, released on July 27, 1984, by the independent record label Megaforce Records. The album was recorded in three weeks with producer Flemming Rasmussen at the Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark. The artwork, based on a concept by the band, depicts an electric chair being struck by lightning flowing from the band logo. The title was taken from a passage in Stephen King's novel The Stand. Although rooted in the thrash metal genre, the album showcased the band's musical growth and lyrical sophistication. This was partly because bassist Cliff Burton introduced the basics of music theory to the rest of the band and had more input in the songwriting. Instead of relying heavily on fast tempos as on its debut Kill 'Em All, Metallica broadened its approach by employing acoustic guitars, extended instrumentals, and more complex harmonies. The overall recording costs were paid by Metallica's European label Music for Nations because Megaforce was unable to cover it. It was the last album to feature songwriting contributions from former lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, and the first to feature contributions from his replacement, Kirk Hammett.

<i>...And Justice for All</i> (album) 1988 studio album by Metallica

...And Justice for All is the fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica, released on August 25, 1988 via Elektra Records. It is the band's first studio album to feature bassist Jason Newsted following the death of Cliff Burton in 1986.

<i>Kill Em All</i> 1983 studio album by Metallica

Kill 'Em All is the debut studio album by the American heavy metal band Metallica, released on July 25, 1983, by the independent record label Megaforce Records. Kill 'Em All is regarded as a groundbreaking album for thrash metal because of its precise musicianship, which fuses new wave of British heavy metal riffs with hardcore punk tempos. The album's musical approach and lyrics were markedly different from rock's mainstream of the early 1980s and inspired a number of bands who followed in similar manner. The album did not enter the Billboard 200 until 1986, when it peaked at number 155, following Metallica's commercial success with its third studio album Master of Puppets; the 1988 Elektra reissue peaked at number 120. Kill 'Em All was critically praised at the time of its release and in retrospect, and was placed on a few publications' best album lists. It was certified 3× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 1999 for shipping three million copies in the United States. The album generated two singles, "Whiplash" and "Jump in the Fire".

Jason Newsted American musician

Jason Curtis Newsted is an American metal musician, known for being the bass guitarist with the band Metallica from October 1986 until his sudden departure in January 2001.

<i>Metallica: Some Kind of Monster</i> 2004 film by Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky

Metallica: Some Kind of Monster is a 2004 American documentary film featuring the American thrash metal band Metallica. It shares its name with the song "Some Kind of Monster" from Metallica's 2003 album St. Anger. The film shows many studio rehearsals and fragments of concert footage. It won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Documentary Feature. The DVD release was handled by Paramount Home Entertainment. Metallica re-released the film, including a bonus documentary, in 2014 to celebrate its 10th anniversary.

Fade to Black (song) 1984 single by Metallica

"Fade to Black" is a song and the first power ballad by American heavy metal band Metallica, released as the first promotional single from its second studio album, Ride the Lightning. The song was ranked as having the 24th best guitar solo ever by Guitar World readers.

<i>Beatallica</i> (EP) 2004 EP by Beatallica

Beatallica is the second E.P. from Beatallica. It contains eight tracks, made from combinations of Beatles and Metallica songs. The gray color of the album cover is a reference to both The Beatles and Metallica's self-titled albums.

The Unforgiven (song) power ballad by American heavy metal band Metallica

"The Unforgiven" is a power ballad by American heavy metal band Metallica. It was released as the second single from their eponymous fifth album Metallica. Though one of the slower tracks on the album, its chord progression is distinctly one of the heaviest. The song deals with the theme of the struggle of the individual against the efforts of those who would subjugate him.

Jump in the Fire 1984 single by Metallica

"Jump in the Fire" is a song by American thrash metal band Metallica. It was released as the second and final single from their debut album, Kill 'Em All. The single was accompanied by fake live performances of "Phantom Lord" and "Seek & Destroy" which were alternate studio recordings with sounds of a crowd overdubbed in.

Escape from the Studio 06 concert tour

Escape from the Studio '06 was a 2006 concert tour by American heavy metal band Metallica. The tour took place during the writing process of the group's then-untitled ninth studio album, Death Magnetic, and follows the Madly in Anger with the World Tour in support of St. Anger.

"Am I Evil?" is a song by British heavy metal band Diamond Head released on their 1980 debut album Lightning to the Nations. The song was written by vocalist Sean Harris and guitarist Brian Tatler and released on Happy Face Records, a label owned by the producer Muff Murfin of The Old Smithy studio of Worcester. The song was immediately popular among the heavy metal circles in the United Kingdom around the time of its release, but only rose to international prominence after Metallica covered it as a B-side on their "Creeping Death" single in 1984; the cover was re-released on their 1998 covers album Garage Inc.. The song was influenced by the Black Sabbath song "Symptom of the Universe."

<i>Masterful Mystery Tour</i> 2009 studio album by Beatallica

Masterful Mystery Tour is the second album from Beatallica. It contains 12 tracks, which are mashups of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. As with their first album Sgt. Hetfield's Motorbreath Pub Band, this album contains re-recordings of songs from the band's EP releases A Garage Dayz Nite and Beatallica, plus six new Beatles/Metallica mashup songs. The album cover is a parody of The Beatles' Magical Mystery Tour and Metallica's Master of Puppets.

<i>Winter Plunderband</i> 2009 EP by Beatallica

Winter Plunderband, Beatallica's third extended play CD, was released on November 17, 2009. It is Beatallica's first ever Holiday Season release. The EP is only available at Beatallica live shows and can also be purchased as a digital download, which includes a digital booklet with artwork, lyrics and over nineteen photos.

The Poor Touring Me Tour was a 1996–1997 concert tour by American heavy metal band Metallica supporting their sixth album Load. It had two legs, one in Europe and the other in North America. The name comes from the ninth song of the album, "Poor Twisted Me." The VHS/DVD Cunning Stunts was recorded in Fort Worth, Texas, on May 9 and 10. This was the first tour that Metallica played after tuning down from standard tuning to E♭ standard.

<i>Six Feet Down Under</i> 2010 EP by Metallica

Six Feet Down Under is a limited edition commemorative live EP by the American heavy metal band Metallica. It was released in Australia and New Zealand only on September 20, 2010 through Universal Music. It has been sold by Trans-Tasman record stores, Metallica online store and iTunes only. The EP contains fan recordings of eight live songs from the band's archive that were never released.

The Kill 'Em All Tour was the first major concert tour by American thrash metal band Metallica. The tour, which was sponsored by their record label, Megaforce Records, was in support of their debut album, Kill 'Em All, released two days before the start of the tour. Metallica supported Raven, Venom and Twisted Sister while supporting acts for Metallica included Anthrax and Armored Saint. Tour setlists consisted of songs off their debut album, cover songs including Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?" and Blitzkrieg's self-titled song, and songs that would be released on Ride the Lightning.

<i>Abbey Load</i> 2013 studio album by Beatallica

Abbey Load is the third studio album from Beatallica. It was released on 16 April 2013. It is the band's first studio album in over four years, since Masterful Mystery Tour was released in late 2009. The album's title was announced on 12 March 2013. Unlike the other Beatallica albums, the songs on this album have the original lyrics written by the Beatles, due to an imposition at Sony Music, the distributor of their label Oglio and owner of the Beatles' catalogue through Sony/ATV Music Publishing. Before, the lyrics were parodies such as "Mean Mr. Mustaine".

References

  1. 1 2 "Jaymz Lennfield of Beatallica Interview". Guitarhoo!. Guitarhoo.com. July 15, 2006. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  2. "Beatallica: James Hetfield And Lars Ulrich Have Been Nothing But Cool To Us - Blabbermouth.net". BLABBERMOUTH.NET.
  3. "Welcome Beatallibangers!". Archived from the original on August 31, 2006.
  4. THE FAB FOUR HORSEMAN: An Exclusive Interview with Jaymz Lennfield of BEATALLICA Archived August 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Beatallica – Timeline Photos – Facebook".
  6. 1 2 Joe Bosso. "Beatallica's Jaymz Lennfield talks Beatles/Metallica mash-ups on Abbey Load". MusicRadar.
  7. "Beatallica". iTunes.
  8. "Sean Williamson – Recording some \m/ 2nite w/ Beatallica! – Facebook".
  9. "Beatallica". www.facebook.com. Retrieved January 24, 2018.