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The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian: Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, abbr. ЭСБЕ, tr. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' Brokgauza i Yefrona; 35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in Russian. It contains 121,240 articles, 7,800 images, and 235 maps. It was published in Imperial Russia in 1890–1907, as a joint venture of Leipzig and St Petersburg publishers. The articles were written by the prominent Russian scholars of the period, such as Dmitri Mendeleev and Vladimir Solovyov. Reprints have appeared following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In 1889, the owner of one of the St. Petersburg printing houses Ilya Efron on the initiative of Professor Semyon Vengerov signed an agreement with the German publishing house F.A. Brockhaus to make Russian translation of a large encyclopaedia Konversations-Lexikon , issued by this publishing house. To this end the Brockhaus-Efron joint stock company was established. Originally they intended to translate the German publication with a more detailed account of issues related to Russia. It was supposed to release 16-18 volumes.
The first 8 half-volumes were edited by Ivan Andrievsky; the rest by Konstantin Arsenyev and Fyodor Petrushevsky. The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary contains 121,240 entries, 7800 illustrations and 235 maps.
The encyclopedia came out in two versions: one had 41 main and 2 additional volumes (smaller part of the circulation); the other had 82 primary and 4 additional half-volumes. Half-volumes have double numbering: e.g., 49 and 50 (the numbers on the spine) and on the title pages are numbered XXV and XXVa.
In the years 1899-1902 the Small Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (МЭСБЕ) (in 3 volumes) was produced; in 1907-1909 the second edition came out in four volumes.
In the years 1911-1916 there appeared the New Encyclopedic Dictionary (Новый энциклопедический словарь); 29 volumes of the planned 48 were published, up to the entry for "Отто". The National Library of Russia holds proof-copies of the 30th («Падалка» — «Пермская епархия»; incomplete, without beginning), and the 31st volumes («Пермская система» — «Познанское великое княжество»).
The Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is a German-language encyclopedia which until 2009 was published by the F. A. Brockhaus printing house.
Pomors or Pomory are an ethnographic group descended from Russian settlers, primarily from Veliky Novgorod, living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which separates the White Sea river basin from the basins of rivers that flow south.
Ivan Kuzmich Makarov was a Russian portrait painter.
The Black Sea Governorate, was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire.
Varenye or varenya is a popular whole-fruit preserve, widespread in Eastern Europe, as well as the Baltic region. It is made by cooking berries, other fruits, or more rarely nuts, vegetables, or flowers, in sugar syrup. In some traditional recipes, other sweeteners such as honey or treacle are used instead of or in addition to sugar.
Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Kniazhnina was an 18th-century Russian poet. Her surname also appears as Knyazhnina.
The Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary is a Russian encyclopedic dictionary originally published in 58 volumes with one supplement throughout both the Tsarist and Soviet periods. The dictionary's full title is The Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Granat Russian Bibliographical Institute. The word "Granat" refers to the last name of two brothers, Alexander and Ignatiy Granat, who commissioned the articles in their Moscow office.
Mikhail Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Михаил Павлович Чехов; was a Russian writer and theater critic; the youngest brother and biographer of Anton Chekhov.
Russkiy Mir was a daily Russian newspaper published in Saint Petersburg in 1871–1880. Its publishers Mikhail Chernyayev, Vissarion Komarov, Pavel Viskovatov, and Fyodor Berg were also its co-editors, alongside Dmitry Stakheyev and later Evgeny Rapp.
Narodnaya Shkola was a pedagogical fortnightly published in Saint Petersburg in 1869–1889. The journal's objective was providing the teachers, mostly in the Russian province, with the new methodological and theoretical materials, as well as keeping a general view on the state of school education in Imperial Russia. The magazine was edited first by Fyodor Mednikov (1869—1877), then by Vasily Yevtushevski and Alexander Pyatkovsky (1878—1882), then by Pyatkovsky alone. The best Russian practicing pedagogues and theoreticians contributed to Narodnaya Shkola, including Fyodor Rezener, Vasily Vodovozov, Vladimir von Boole, Nikolai Bunakov and Dmitry Semyonov.
Vasily Yurievich Skalon was a Russian writer, essayist, journalist, editor and later in life, political activist.
Vissarion Vissarionovich Komarov was a Russian journalist, editor and an Imperial Russian Army colonel who in 1876 was promoted to the rank of the Serbian army general for his victories in several battles he conducted against the Turkish army during the Montenegrin–Ottoman War, in 1876.
Ivan Ivanovich Bakhtin, was a Russian government official and writer.
A gradonachalnik was —in the Russian Empire of the 19th and early 20th century— an official with the rights of governor who controlled a gradonachalstvo, independent of the provincial subdivision, with its own administrative unit due to its special significance or geographical location. These cities were Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kyakhta, Feodosiya, Izmail, Derbent, Rostov-on-Don, Dalniy, Baku, Taganrog, Yalta, Kerch-Yenikale and Nikolayev.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Yatsimirsky was a Russian philologist-slavistic and a specialist in history of Romania and Moldavia. He was one of the authors of the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary.
The chinovnik was a Russian title for a person having a rank and serving in the civil or court service. The institution of chinovniks existed de facto in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, but until 1722 it did not have a clear structure. The de jure chinovnik institute was structured by the establishment of the Table of Ranks on February 4, 1722.
The second major was the junior staff officer rank in the Imperial Russian Army of the Russian Armed Forces of the imperial period of time, in the 18th century, and also the person wearing this rank.
The Alatyr in Russian legends and folklore is a sacred stone, the "father to all stones", the navel of the earth, containing sacred letters and endowed with healing properties. Although the name Alatyr appears only in East Slavic sources, the awareness of the existence of such a stone exists in various parts of the Slavdom. It is often mentioned in stories and referred to in love spells as "a mighty force that has no end."
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