|Purpose||Organizes, coordinates and supervises China's polar program|
|Headquarters||No.1 Fuxingmenwai Ave. 10086, Beijing, China|
|State Oceanic Administration|
|Affiliations|| International Arctic Research Center;|
International Arctic Science Committee
The Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration (CAA) (previously the Chinese Antarctic Administration of the State Antarctic Research Committee)is a Beijing-based agency of the People's Republic of China's State Oceanic Administration (SOA). Established in 1981, it organizes China's scientific program for both the Arctic and Antarctic, and it provides logistic support to Antarctic expeditions. There are several; divisions, including General Affairs, Operation & Logistics, Science Programs, International Cooperation, representation in the Chinese Embassy in Chile, and a Winter Training Base. The director is Qu Tanzhou.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
The State Oceanic Administration was an administrative agency subordinate to the Ministry of Land and Resources, responsible for the supervision and management of sea area in the People's Republic of China and coastal environmental protection, protecting national maritime rights and organizing scientific and technical research of its territorial waters. In March 2018, the 13th National People’s Congress announced that the newly formed Ministry of Natural Resources will replace the functions of the Ministry of Land & Resources, State Oceanic Administration and the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.
The CAA organizes, coordinates and supervises China's polar program. As such, its responsibilities include: developing an integrated national polar research strategy, developing policy to guide national polar research activities, developing a five-year plan which coordinates the national policy, updating the national polar plan on an annual basis, coordinating the annual national polar research expedition, promoting coordination of polar research programs with other agencies, and supporting polar research cooperation with other nations and international organizations.
The CAA is affiliated with the International Arctic Research Center,and the International Arctic Science Committee.
The International Arctic Research Center, or IARC, established in 1999, is a research institution focused on integrating and coordinating study of Climate change in the Arctic. The primary partners in IARC are Japan and the United States. Participants include organizations from Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Norway, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental organization which is composed of international science groups participating in arctic science research. IASC is an International Scientific Associate of ICSU, and was established in 1990. IASC's main aim is to initiate, develop, and coordinate leading edge scientific activity in the Arctic region, and on the role of the Arctic in the Earth system. It also provides objective and independent scientific advice to the Arctic Council and other organizations on issues of science affecting the management of the Arctic region. The decision-making organs of IASC are the Council and the Executive Committee. The day-to-day operations are supported by its secretariat headed by the executive secretary. IASC's geographical remit covers the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding landmasses.
A 2006 Shanghai Daily news report stated that Chinese scientists would begin naming 46 newly surveyed, anonymous Antarctic islands and that the CAA, with its teammate Sina.com, would collect candidate names.From 2007 through 2009, the CAA organized a government sponsored research project to enhance its understanding of the legal, military and political issues associated with the Arctic. The agency also operates a winter training base at Yabuli Ski Resort in the northern province of Heilongjiang.
Shanghai Daily is an English-language newspaper in China started in October 1999 and owned by Shanghai United Media Group. Its primary audience is expats living in Shanghai, visiting foreigners, mainly overseas investors and tourists to Shanghai, and local white-collar workers proficient in English. Many Chinese students also read it to improve their English. It is the only English-language newspaper that is published seven days a week in Mainland China.
Yabuli Ski Resort is the largest ski resort in China and includes the country's largest ski jumping facilities, located in the northeastern province of Heilongjiang. It is 110 mi (177 km) southeast from Harbin, approximately 2.5hrs by train. Yabuli hosted the 1996 Winter Asian Games, the 2008 National Winter Games and the 2009 Winter Universiade. Yabuli underwent major renovations in the 2008/2009 winter season. A new four seater Doppelmayr chairlift was installed, along with a six-seater gondola. Existing lifts consist of single chairlift, double chairlifts and poma's. Three new on-snow hotels/lodges are being constructed and should be open by mid-January 2009.
Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in the most northeastern part of the country, Heilongjiang is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
The International Polar Year 2007-2008 China Programme included a partnership between the International Polar Foundation, the CCA, and the Polar Research Institute of China. This included the participation of Jean de Pomereu, reporter and photographer, in the 25th CHINARE Expedition late in the year in 2008. He traveled aboard the Chinese icebreaker, Xuelong ("Snow Dragon"), then reported from China's east Antarctic research station, Antarctic Zhongshan Station.The expedition team sent by the CAA was also entrusted with starting construction of the Antarctic Kunlun Station, China's third Antarctic station.
The International Polar Years (IPY) are collaborative, international efforts with intensive research foci on the polar regions. Karl Weyprecht, an Austro-Hungarian naval officer, motivated the endeavor in 1875, but died before it first occurred in 1882–1883. Fifty years later (1932–1933) a second IPY took place. The International Geophysical Year was inspired by the IPY and was organized 75 years after the first IPY (1957–58). The fourth, and most recent, IPY covered two full annual cycles from March 2007 to March 2009.
Based in Brussels, Belgium, the International Polar Foundation (IPF) communicates and educates on polar science and polar research as a way to understand key environmental and climate mechanisms. The foundation also promotes innovative and multifaceted responses to the complex challenges raised by the need for action on sustainable development, and designed, built and operates the first zero emission Antarctic scientific research station Princess Elisabeth Antarctica. The IPF was founded in 2002 by polar explorer Alain Hubert, Hugo Decleir and André Berger.
The Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC) is the main Chinese research institute for the study of the Earth's polar regions. It is based in Shanghai, China.
Xuelong, China's only polar research icebreaker was purchased in 1993 from Ukraine, and has made 24 research expeditions to the Antarctic and three to the Arctic. In 2009, the CAA began planning for a Chinese-built icebreaker due to China's expanding polar exploration activities. Xue Long 2, was laid down in 2016 and is expected to enter service in 2019.The ship, named MV
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.
MV Xue Long 2 is a Chinese icebreaking research vessel that is under construction and scheduled to enter service in 2019. She follows the naming of MV Xue Long, China's first polar research vessel.
The International Geophysical Year was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. It marked the end of a long period during the Cold War when scientific interchange between East and West had been seriously interrupted. Sixty-seven countries participated in IGY projects, although one notable exception was the mainland People's Republic of China, which was protesting against the participation of the Republic of China (Taiwan). East and West agreed to nominate the Belgian Marcel Nicolet as secretary general of the associated international organization.
The Krasin is a Russian icebreaker. The vessel operates in polar regions.
Oden is a large Swedish icebreaker, built in 1988 for the Swedish Maritime Administration. It is named after the Norse god Odin. First built to clear a passage through the ice of the Gulf of Bothnia for cargo ships, it was later modified to serve as a research vessel. Equipped with its own helicopter and manned by 15 crew members it has ample capacity to carry laboratory equipment and 80 passengers, functioning independently in harsh Polar ice packs of the Arctic and Antarctic seas. It was the first non-nuclear surface vessel to reach the North Pole, together with the German research icebreaker Polarstern. It has participated in several scientific expeditions in Arctic and Antarctica.
The Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is a centre for research into the polar regions and glaciology worldwide. It is a sub-department of the Department of Geography in the University of Cambridge, located on Lensfield Road in the south of Cambridge.
A number of governments have set up permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the drifting ice stations set up in the Arctic, the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is fixed in place.
The Soviet Antarctic Expedition was part of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Soviet Committee on Antarctic Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The Great Wall Station was the first Chinese research station in Antarctica and opened on 20 February 1985. It lies on the Fildes Peninsula on King George Island, and is about 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) from the Chilean Frei Montalva Station, and 960 kilometres (600 mi) from Cape Horn. The station is sited on ice-free rock, about 10 metres (33 ft) above sea level.
The Arctic Yellow River Station was established by the Polar Research Institute of China in Ny-Ålesund, on Svalbard, in 2003.
Qu Tanzhou is the director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration.
The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat is a government agency in charge of coordinating and promoting Swedish polar research activities. It is located in Stockholm, has more than 30 employees, and serves under the Ministry of Education and Research.
MV Akademik Shokalskiy is an Akademik Shuleykin-class ice-strengthened ship, built in Finland in 1982 and originally used for oceanographic research. In 1998 she was fully refurbished to serve as a research ship for Arctic and Antarctic work; she is used also for expedition cruising. She is named after the Russian oceanographer Yuly Shokalsky.
The Arctic policy of Russia is the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Federation with respect to the Russian region of the Arctic. The Russian region of the Arctic is defined in the "Russian Arctic Policy" as all Russian possessions located north of the Arctic Circle. Russia is one of five countries bordering the Arctic Ocean. In 2011, out of 4 million inhabitants of the Arctic, roughly 2 million lived in arctic Russia, making it the largest arctic country by population. However, in recent years Russia's Arctic population has been declining.
Chinare or CHINARE may refer to:
Students on Ice is a Canadian charitable organisation that leads educational expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic for international high school and university students. Its mandate is to provide youth, educators and scientists from around the world with learning and teaching opportunities in the polar regions, with the goal of fostering new understanding of and respect for the global environment.
Arctic Policy of China is China's foreign relations with Arctic countries, and the Chinese government's attitudes and actions on issues occurring within the geographic boundaries of "the Arctic" or related to the Arctic or its peoples.
Liu Yan is a Chinese Antarctic researcher best known for her work on iceberg calving. She is an Associate Professor of geography in the College of Global Change and Earth System Science (GCESS) and Polar Research Institute, Beijing Normal University.
Guo Kun was a Chinese polar explorer. He led China's first expedition to Antarctica in 1984–1985 and participated in seven antarctic expeditions in total. He led the construction of China's first two antarctic bases, the Great Wall Station in 1985 and the Zhongshan Station in 1989, and served as Director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration.