Clifford J. Rogers is a professor of history at the United States Military Academy at West Point. He has also been a Leverhulme Visiting Professor at Swansea University, an Olin Fellow in Military and Strategic History at Yale, and a Fulbright Fellow at the Institute of Historical Research in London.
Swansea University is a public research university located in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. It was chartered as University College of Swansea in 1920, as the fourth college of the University of Wales. In 1996, it changed its name to the University of Wales Swansea following structural changes within the University of Wales. The title of Swansea University was formally adopted on 1 September 2007 when the University of Wales became a non-membership confederal institution and the former members became universities in their own right.
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Yale consistently ranks among the top universities in the world.
The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is one of the most prestigious and competitive fellowship programs in the world. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States of America. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world. The program provides 8,000 grants annually.
Rogers writes mainly on medieval military history. His War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 won the 2003 Verbruggen Prize awarded by De Re Militari.He has also been awarded the Royal Historical Society's Alexander Prize medal and a Society for Military History Moncado Prize for his articles, some of which are collected in his Essays on Medieval Military History: Strategy, Military Revolutions and the Hundred Years War.
The Royal Historical Society is a learned society of the United Kingdom which advances scholarly studies of history.
The Society for Military History is a United States-based international organization of scholars who research, write, and teach military history of all time periods and places. It includes naval history, air power history, and studies of technology, ideas, and homefronts. It publishes the quarterly refereed Journal of Military History.
His Soldiers' Lives through History: The Middle Agesreceived the 2009 Verbruggen Prize. A podcast of a lecture based on part of that book, focusing on the soldier's experience of battle, has been posted online by the New York Military Affairs Symposium.
Rogers is the editor of the three-volume Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, which received a Distinguished Book Award from the Society for Military History,The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations, and The Military Revolution Debate. He is co-editor of The Journal of Medieval Military History, The West Point History of the Civil War, The West Point History of World War II, and The West Point History of the American Revolution (each of which received an Army Historical Foundation Distinguished Writing Award), and the essay collection Civilians in the Path of War. He is co-Senior Editor of the 71-chapter interactive digital military history textbook The West Point History of Warfare, which received the 2016 Society of Military History - George C. Marshall Foundation Prize for the Use of Digital Technology in Teaching Military History.
Although Rogers' work on military revolutions has found favor with many historians,some (including Kelly DeVries and John Stone ) argue that his analysis suffers from "technological determinism."
The Military Revolution Debate, ed. Clifford J. Rogers (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). [Paperback and hardback. Kindle ed. 2011]
The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations, ed. Clifford J. Rogers (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1999). [Paperback ed. 2010.]
War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000). [Paperback ed. 2014.]
Civilians in the Path of War, ed. Mark Grimsley and Clifford J. Rogers (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002). [Paperback ed. 2007.]
Soldiers’ Lives through History: The Middle Ages (New York: Greenwood, 2007).
Essays on Medieval Military History: Strategy, Military Revolutions, and the Hundred Years War (London: Ashgate/Variorum, 2010).
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editor for France, and joint Associate Editor for Britain. 3 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).
The West Point History of Warfare, Senior Editors Clifford J. Rogers and Ty Seidule. A 71-chapter history of warfare with 49 authors, created for iPad interactive format. Beta version released 2013-14. Version 1.0 release forthcoming 2015-16.
The West Point History of the Civil War, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Samuel J. Watson. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, Oct. 2014). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, October 2014).
The West Point History of World War II, vol. 1, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Steve R. Waddell. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, 2015).
The West Point History of World War II, vol. 2, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Steve R. Waddell. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2016). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, 2016)
The West Point History of the American Revolution, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Samuel J. Watson. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, Oct. 2017). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, October 2017).
Scholarly articles and book chapters:
"Edward III and the Dialectics of Strategy, 1327-1360," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 4 (1994): 83-102. Reprinted in The Wars of Edward III, and in Kelly DeVries, ed., Medieval Warfare, 1300-1450 (London: Ashgate, 2010).
"The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years’ War," The Journal of Military History, 57 (April, 1993): 241-278. Reprinted with revisions in C. J. Rogers, ed. The Military Revolution Debate (Boulder: Westview, 1995), and reprinted in Paul E. J. Hammer, ed. Warfare in Early Modern Europe, 1450-1660 (London: Ashgate, 2007).
“The Offensive/Defensive in Medieval Strategy,” From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1346-1526). Acta of the XXIInd Colloquium of the International Commission of Military History (Vienna, 1996) (Vienna: Heeresgeschichtliches Museum/Militärhistorisches Institut, 1997): 158-171.
“The Efficacy of the Medieval Longbow: A Reply to Kelly DeVries,” War in History 5, no. 2 (1998): 233-42.
“An Unknown News Bulletin from the Siege of Tournai in 1340,” War in History, 5, no. 3 (1998): 358-366.
“The Scottish Invasion of 1346,” Northern History, XXXIV (1998): 51-69.
“Three New Accounts of the Neville’s Cross Campaign,” C. J. Rogers and M. C. Buck. Northern History, XXXIV (1998): 70-81.
“The Age of the Hundred Years' War,” in Medieval Warfare: A History, ed. Maurice Keen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999): 136-160.
“A Continuation of the Manuel d'histoire de Philippe VI for the Years 1328-1339,” English Historical Review, CXIV (1999): 1256-1266.
“ ‘Military Revolutions’ and ‘Revolutions in Military Affairs’: A Historian’s Perspective” in Thierry Gongora and Harald von Riekhoff (eds.), Toward a Revolution in Military Affairs? Defense and Security at the Dawn of the 21st Century. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000): 21-36.
"The Anglo-French Peace Negotiations of 1354-1360 Reconsidered," in The Age of Edward III, ed. James Bothwell (York: York Medieval Press, 2001): 193-213.
“‘As If a New Sun Had Arisen:’ England’s Fourteenth-century RMA,” in The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050, ed. MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2001): 15-34.
"By Fire and Sword: Bellum Hostile and 'Civilians' in the Hundred Years War,” in Civilians in the Path of War, ed. Mark Grimsley and Clifford J. Rogers (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002): 33-78.
“Clausewitz, Genius, and the Rules,” Journal of Military History, 66 (2002): 1167-76.
“The Vegetian ‘Science of Warfare’ in the Middle Ages,” Journal of Medieval Military History 1 (2003): 1-20.
“The Bergerac Campaign (1345) and the Generalship of Henry of Lancaster,” Journal of Medieval Military History 2 (2004): 89-110.
“The Medieval Legacy,” Early Modern Military History, ed. Geoff Mortimer (London: Palgrave, 2004): 6-24.
“Henry V’s Military Strategy in 1415,” The Hundred Years War: A Wider Focus, ed. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay (Leiden: Brill, 2005): 399-427.
“Sir Thomas Dagworth in Brittany, 1346-7: Restellou and La Roche Derrien,” Journal of Medieval Military History 3 (2005): 127-154.
“The Battle of Agincourt,” The Hundred Years War (Part II): Different Vistas, ed. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay (Leiden: Brill, 2008): 37-132.
“The Practice of War,” A Companion to the Medieval World, ed. Edward D. English and Carol L. Lansing (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009): 435-454.
“The Black Prince in Gascony and France (1355-6), According to MS78 of Corpus Christi College, Oxford,” Journal of Medieval Military History 7 (2009): 168-175.
“The Idea of Military Revolutions in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Texts,” Revista de História das Ideias 30 (2009): 395-415.
"Tactics and the Face of Battle,” in Frank Tallett and D.J.B. Trim, eds. European Warfare, 1350-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): 203-235.
“The Artillery and Artillery Fortress Revolutions Revisited,” in Nicolas Prouteau, Emmanuel de Crouy-Chanel and Nicolas Faucherre, eds., Artillerie et Fortification, 1200-1600 (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2011): 75-80.
“The Longbow, the Infantry Revolution, and Technological Determinism,” The Journal of Medieval History 37 (2011): 321-341.
“Giraldus Cambrensis, Edward I, and the Conquest of Wales,” in Successful Strategies. Triumphing in War and Peace from Antiquity to the Present, ed. Williamson Murray and Richard Hart Sinnreich (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2014): 65-99.
“Carolingian Cavalry in Battle: The Evidence Reconsidered,” in Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France, ed. Simon John and Nicolas Morton (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), 1-11.
“Early and High Medieval Warfare,” The West Point History of Warfare, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).
“Warfare in the Late Middle Ages: The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453,” The West Point History of Warfare, ed. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, vol. 1, European Warfare to 1900, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).
“Warfare, 500-1500,” in The Cambridge History of the World, vol. 5, Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conquest, 500 CE-1500 CE, ed. Benjamin Kedar and Merry Wiesner-Hanks (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2015.)
“Afghanistan: The Thirty Years War and Counting,” by Lester W. Grau and Clifford J. Rogers, in The West Point History of Warfare, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and Gail Yoshitani. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).
“The War at Mid-Point,” in The West Point History of World War II, vol. 1, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule and Steve R. Waddell (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015), 281-290.
"The Anglo-Burgundian Alliance in the Hundred Years' War,” Grand Strategy and Alliances, ed. Peter Mansoor and Williamson Murray (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 216-253.
“Assessing the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon: Clausewitz and Jomini,” (e-book chapter) in The West Point History of Warfare, ed. Clifford J. Rogers and Ty Seidule; chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2017).
“The Symbolic Meaning of Edward III’s Garter Badge,” in Gary Baker, Craig Lambert, and David Simpkin, eds., Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2018): 125-146.
“Medieval Strategy and the Economics of Conquest,” The Journal of Military History 82 (2018): 709-38.
“Gunpowder Artillery in Europe, 1326-1500: Innovation and Impact,” in Robert S. Ehlers, Jr.; Sarah K. Douglas; and Daniel P. M. Curzon, eds., Technology, Violence and War. Essays in Honor of John F. Guilmartin, Jr. (Leiden: Brill, 2019): 39-71.
“A Note on Chandos Herald at the Battle of Nájera (1367),” The Medieval Chronicle 12 (2019): 227-37.
The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John II along with his youngest son and much of the French nobility.
Year 1267 (MCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
The Battle of Crécy took place on 26 August 1346 in north-east France between a French army commanded by King Philip VI and an English army led by King Edward III. The French attacked the English while they were traversing northern France during the Hundred Years' War resulting in an English victory and heavy loss of life among the French.
The Battle of the Golden Spurs was a military confrontation between the royal army of France and rebellious forces of the County of Flanders on 11 July 1302 during the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305). It took place near the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai) in modern-day Belgium and resulted in an unexpected victory for the Flemish. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Courtrai.
The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a military-theoretical hypothesis, about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the militaries of the United States and other countries. Broadly stated, RMA claims that in certain periods of the history of humankind, there were new military doctrines, strategies, tactics and technologies which led to an irrecoverable change in the conduct of warfare. Furthermore, those changes compel an accelerated adaptation of novel doctrines and strategies.
The Military Revolution is the theory that a series of radical changes in military strategy and tactics during the 16th and 17th centuries resulted in major lasting changes in governments and society. The theory was introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s as he focused on Sweden 1560–1660 searching for major changes in the European way of war caused by introduction of portable firearms. Roberts linked military technology with larger historical consequences, arguing that innovations in tactics, drill and doctrine by the Dutch and Swedes 1560–1660, which maximized the utility of firearms, led to a need for more trained troops and thus for permanent forces. Armies grew much larger and more expensive. These changes in turn had major political consequences in the level of administrative support and the supply of money, men and provisions, producing new financial demands and the creation of new governmental institutions. "Thus, argued Roberts, the modern art of war made possible—and necessary—the creation of the modern state". In the 1990s the concept was modified and extended by Geoffrey Parker, who argued that developments in fortification and siege warfare caused the revolution.
The repeating crossbow is a Chinese crossbow that was invented during the Warring States period, and remained in use until the late Qing dynasty. The repeating crossbow combined the actions of spanning the bow, placing the bolt, and shooting into a one-handed movement, thus allowing for a much higher rate of fire than a normal crossbow. A top-mounted magazine containing a reservoir of bolts fed the crossbow through gravity, and the mechanism was worked by moving a rectangular lever forward and backward.
The Siege of Calais occurred at the conclusion of the Crécy campaign, when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French town of Calais during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
The hand cannon, also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance. It is the oldest type of small arms as well as the most mechanically simplistic form of metal barrel firearms. Unlike matchlock firearms it requires direct manual external ignition through a touch hole without any form of firing mechanism. It may also be considered a forerunner of the handgun. The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.
The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th-century China during the Jin-Song Wars. It began as a small pyrotechnic device attached to a spear-like weapon, used to gain a critical shock advantage right at the start of a melee. As gunpowder improved, the explosive discharge was increased, and debris or pellets added, giving it some of the effects of a combination modern flamethrower and shotgun, but with a very short range, and only one shot. In later larger and more powerful fire lances, the lance-point was discarded, as these versions were too unwieldy to be used in melee. These are considered to be a proto-gun, the predecessor of the hand cannon, and the ancestor of all firearms. Some fire lances were too large for a single man to wield. These were placed upon the ground in a supporting framework, and can be considered proto-cannons.
A battle or battaile was a medieval military formation. The word "bataille" is sometimes translated as "battalion", but Abels and Bachrach et al say this is not accurate because the bataille was a completely ad hoc formation. In late medieval warfare, field armies were often drawn up into three main battles, also called guards: the vanguard, the middle guard, and the rearguard, often abbreviated to simply the van, middle, and rear. These terms imply, correctly, that the van preceded the middle, which in turn preceded the rear, into battle if the battles were arranged sequentially as a column. If arranged abreast, the van was on the right and the rear the left.
The Battle of Caen on 26 July 1346 was the assault on the French-held town by elements of an invading English army under King Edward III as a part of the Hundred Years' War. The English army numbered 12,000–15,000, and part of it, nominally commanded by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, prematurely attacked the town. Caen was garrisoned by 1,000–1,500 soldiers and an unknown, but large, number of armed townsmen, commanded by Raoul, the Count of Eu, the Grand Constable of France. The town was captured in the first assault; more than 5,000 of the ordinary soldiers and townspeople were killed and a few nobles were taken prisoner. The town was then sacked for five days.
For his life and a basic reading list see Napoleon I of France
The Battle of Bergerac was fought between Anglo-Gascon and French forces at the town of Bergerac in Gascony, in August 1345 during the Hundred Years' War. In early 1345 Edward III of England decided to launch a major attack on the French from the north, while sending smaller forces to Brittany and Gascony, the latter being both economically important to the English war effort and the proximate cause of the war. The French focused on the threat to northern France, leaving comparatively small forces in the south west.
This is a bibliography of works on the military history of the United States.
The Truce of Espléchin (1340) was a truce between the English and French crowns during the Hundred Years' War.
The Siege of Aiguillon, an episode in the Hundred Years' War, began on 1 April 1346 when a French army commanded by John, Duke of Normandy, laid siege to the Gascon town of Aiguillon. The town was defended by an Anglo-Gascon army under Ralph, Earl of Stafford.
Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346 was a series of offensives directed by Henry, Earl of Lancaster, in southwestern France during autumn 1346, as a part of the Hundred Years' War.
The Crécy campaign was a large-scale raid (chevauchée) conducted by an English army throughout northern France in 1346, which devastated the French countryside on a wide front and culminated in the eponymous Battle of Crécy. It was part of the Hundred Years' War. The campaign began on 12 July 1346, with the landing of English troops in Normandy, and ended with the capitulation of Calais on 3 August 1347. The English army was led by King Edward III, and the French by King Philip VI.