In mathematics, a completely metrizable space(metrically topologically complete space ) is a topological space (X, T) for which there exists at least one metric d on X such that (X, d) is a complete metric space and d induces the topology T. The term topologically complete space is employed by some authors as a synonym for completely metrizable space, but sometimes also used for other classes of topological spaces, like completely uniformizable spaces or Čech-complete spaces.
The difference between completely metrizable space and complete metric space is in the words there exists at least one metric in the definition of completely metrizable space, which is not the same as there is given a metric (the latter would yield the definition of complete metric space). Once we make the choice of the metric on a completely metrizable space (out of all the complete metrics compatible with the topology), we get a complete metric space. In other words, the category of completely metrizable spaces is a subcategory of that of topological spaces, while the category of complete metric spaces is not (instead, it is a subcategory of the category of metric spaces). Complete metrizability is a topological property while completeness is a property of the metric.
When talking about spaces with more structure than just topology, like topological groups, the natural meaning of the words “completely metrizable” would arguably be the existence of a complete metric that is also compatible with that extra structure, in addition to inducing its topology. For abelian topological groups and topological vector spaces, “compatible with the extra structure” might mean that the metric is invariant under translations.
However, no confusion can arise when talking about an abelian topological group or a topological vector space being completely metrizable: it can be proven that every abelian topological group (and thus also every topological vector space) that is completely metrizable as a topological space (i. e., admits a complete metric that induces its topology) also admits an invariant complete metric that induces its topology.
This implies e. g. that every completely metrizable topological vector space is complete. Indeed, a topological vector space is called complete iff its uniformity (induced by its topology and addition operation) is complete; the uniformity induced by a translation-invariant metric that induces the topology coincides with the original uniformity.
In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a metrizable space is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a metric space. That is, a topological space is said to be metrizable if there is a metric such that the topology induced by is . Metrization theorems are theorems that give sufficient conditions for a topological space to be metrizable.
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, Tychonoff spaces and completely regular spaces are kinds of topological spaces. These conditions are examples of separation axioms.
This is a glossary of some terms used in the branch of mathematics known as topology. Although there is no absolute distinction between different areas of topology, the focus here is on general topology. The following definitions are also fundamental to algebraic topology, differential topology and geometric topology.
In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure. Uniform spaces are topological spaces with additional structure that is used to define uniform properties such as completeness, uniform continuity and uniform convergence. Uniform spaces generalize metric spaces and topological groups, but the concept is designed to formulate the weakest axioms needed for most proofs in analysis.
In mathematics, a topological vector space is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis. A topological vector space is a vector space which is also a topological space, this implies that vector space operations be continuous functions. More specifically, its topological space has a uniform topological structure, allowing a notion of uniform convergence.
The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important result in general topology and functional analysis. The theorem has two forms, each of which gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space.
In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov, who proved it first in 1930 for powers of the closed unit interval and in 1935 stated the full theorem along with the remark that its proof was the same as for the special case. The earliest known published proof is contained in a 1937 paper of Eduard Čech.
In mathematics, the Hilbert cube, named after David Hilbert, is a topological space that provides an instructive example of some ideas in topology. Furthermore, many interesting topological spaces can be embedded in the Hilbert cube; that is, can be viewed as subspaces of the Hilbert cube.
In the mathematical fields of general topology and descriptive set theory, a meagre set is a set that, considered as a subset of a topological space, is in a precise sense small or negligible. A topological space T is called meagre if it is a meager subset of itself; otherwise, it is called nonmeagre.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces. They are generalizations of Banach spaces. All Banach and Hilbert spaces are Fréchet spaces. Spaces of infinitely differentiable functions are typical examples of Fréchet spaces, many of which are typically not Banach spaces.
In the mathematical field of topology, a Gδ set is a subset of a topological space that is a countable intersection of open sets. The notation originated in German with G for Gebiet meaning open set in this case and δ for Durchschnitt. The term inner limiting set is also used. Gδ sets, and their dual, Fσ sets, are the second level of the Borel hierarchy.
In the mathematical discipline of general topology, a Polish space is a separable completely metrizable topological space; that is, a space homeomorphic to a complete metric space that has a countable dense subset. Polish spaces are so named because they were first extensively studied by Polish topologists and logicians—Sierpiński, Kuratowski, Tarski and others. However, Polish spaces are mostly studied today because they are the primary setting for descriptive set theory, including the study of Borel equivalence relations. Polish spaces are also a convenient setting for more advanced measure theory, in particular in probability theory.
In topology, a compactly generated space is a topological space whose topology is coherent with the family of all compact subspaces. Specifically, a topological space X is compactly generated if it satisfies the following condition:
In mathematics, a topological space X is uniformizable if there exists a uniform structure on X that induces the topology of X. Equivalently, X is uniformizable if and only if it is homeomorphic to a uniform space.
In mathematics, particularly topology, a Gδ space is a topological space in which closed sets are in a way ‘separated’ from their complements using only countably many open sets. A Gδ space may thus be regarded as a space satisfying a different kind of separation axiom. In fact normal Gδ spaces are referred to as perfectly normal spaces, and satisfy the strongest of separation axioms.
In mathematics, a topological space is called completely uniformizable if there exists at least one complete uniformity that induces the topology T. Some authors additionally require X to be Hausdorff. Some authors have called these spaces topologically complete, although that term has also been used in other meanings like completely metrizable, which is a stronger property than completely uniformizable.
Zdeněk Frolík was a Czech mathematician. His research interests included topology and functional analysis. In particular, his work concerned covering properties of topological spaces, ultrafilters, homogeneity, measures, uniform spaces. He was one of the founders of modern descriptive theory of sets and spaces.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a metrizable topological vector space (TVS) is a TVS whose topology is induced by a metric. An LM-space is an inductive limit of a sequence of locally convex metrizable TVS.