Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014

Last updated
Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act / Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
Colloquial name(s) Omnibus Spending Bill
Introduced in 113th United States Congress
Introduced on November 20, 2013
Sponsored by Rep. Lamar Smith (R, TX-21)
Legislative history

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 3547, nicknamed the Cromnibus) is an omnibus spending bill that packages several appropriation bills together in one larger bill. [1] The 113th United States Congress failed to pass any of the twelve regular appropriations bills before the beginning of Fiscal Year 2014. [2] The Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 temporarily funded the government from October 1, 2013 to January 15, 2014. A second continuing resolution extended funding until January 18, 2014, giving both the House and the Senate enough time to vote on this bill. [3]

An omnibus spending bill is a type of bill in the United States that packages many of the smaller ordinary appropriations bills into one larger single bill that could be passed with only one vote in each house. There are twelve different ordinary appropriations bills that need to be passed each year to fund the federal government and avoid a government shutdown; an omnibus spending bill combines two or more of those bills into a single bill.

113th United States Congress legislative term

The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives based on the results of the 2012 Senate elections and the 2012 House elections. The seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census. It first met in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2013, and it ended on January 3, 2015. Senators elected to regular terms in 2008 were in the last two years of those terms during this Congress.

Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 United States funding law

The Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 is a law used to resolve both the United States federal government shutdown of 2013 and the United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2013. After the Republican-led House of Representatives could not agree on an originating resolution to end the government crisis, as had been agreed, the Democratic-led Senate used bill H.R. 2775 to resolve the impasse and to satisfy the Origination Clause requirement of Article One of the United States Constitution, which requires that revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives. Traditionally, appropriation bills also originate in the House of Representatives.

Contents

Background

The budget and spending process of the United States federal government is a complex one. [4] The United States budget process traditionally begins when the President of the United States submits a budget request to Congress. The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 requires the President to submit the budget to Congress for each fiscal year, which is the 12-month period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30 of the next calendar year. [5] The current federal budget law (31 U.S.C.   § 1105(a)) requires that the President submit his or her budget request between the first Monday in January and the first Monday in February. However, it is Congress that actually establishes the budget, as the U.S. Constitution (Article I, section 9, clause 7) states that "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time." The President does not sign the final budget. [2] [4]

The United States budget process is the framework used by Congress and the President of the United States to formulate and create the United States federal budget. The process was established by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, and additional budget legislation.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

President of the United States (POTUS) is the title for the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Title 31 of the United States Code outlines the role of the money and finance in the United States Code.

In 2013, the House of Representatives passed its budget proposal, H.Con.Res. 25, prior to the submission of the President's budget proposal, as did the Senate S.Con.Res. 8. The House and Senate budget resolutions were not expected to be reconciled as a final budget. [6] President Obama submitted his Fiscal Year 2014 budget proposal on April 10, 2013, two months past the February 4 deadline. [7] The three budgets contained significant differences and were never reconciled.

In the United States Congress, a budget resolution is part of the United States budget process. It is in the form of a concurrent resolution passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate but is not presented to the President and does not have the force of law. It sets out the congressional budget.

Several attempts were made to carry on with the regular appropriations process. The House passed the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 2216, June 4, 2013), the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 2217, June 6, 2013), the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 2609, July 10, 2013), the Department of State Operations and Embassy Security Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2014 (H.R. 2848, September 29, 2013), and the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 2397, July 24, 2103). [2] None of these bills were voted on by the Senate. All twelve regular appropriations bills were introduced in the House and the Senate, but these five were the only ones to receive a vote by either body. [2] Congress makes appropriations on a yearly basis. If no appropriations had been made by October 1, 2013, when Fiscal Year 2014 began, the federal government would have to shut down due to lack of funding.

Military Construction and Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014

The Military Construction and Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 is an appropriations bill that was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress. The bill would appropriate money to various government agencies related to the United States Department of Defense and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. This funding would be used during fiscal year 2014, which ends September 30, 2014. According to its committee report, "the purpose of the bill is to support our military and their families and provide the benefits and medical care that our veterans have earned for their service." The report also indicated that the Committee had made its decisions with the national debt and budget deficit in mind.

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2014 Proposed United States Law

The Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2014 is an appropriations bill that was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress. The bill would appropriate money to various government agencies related to the United States Department of Homeland Security. This funding would be used during fiscal year 2014, which ends September 30, 2014. The United States House Committee on Appropriations recommended "$38,993,000,000 in discretionary funding for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for fiscal year 2014, $34,885,000, or .09 percent, below the amount requested and $613,205,000, or 1.55 percent, below fiscal year 2013 enacted levels."

The Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 refers to appropriations bills introduced during the 113th United States Congress. There are two different versions: H.R. 2609 in the House of Representatives and S. 1245 in the Senate. The bill was later incorporated as Division D of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, which was enacted in January 2014.

With the October 1, 2013 deadline nearing, Congress turned its attention to passing a continuing resolution, which would allow the government to be funded at its existing levels for a set period of time, a move intended to give Congress more time to work out final appropriations without shutting down the government. The bill Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 (H.J.Res 59) (H.J.Res. 59) was introduced on September 10, 2013. [8] The bill would have extended government funding until December 15, 2013. [8] Congress was unable to agree on a final version of the bill due to a controversy over defunding the Affordable Care Act, commonly known as "Obamacare". [9] [10] The result was the United States federal government shutdown of 2013. During the shutdown, House Republicans pursued a strategy of passing "mini" continuing resolutions. [11] These bills would fund small, high-profile portions of the government. None of the bills were taken up by the Senate. [12] [13]

In the United States, a continuing resolution is a type of appropriations legislation. An appropriations bill is a bill that appropriates money to specific federal government departments, agencies, and programs. The money provides funding for operations, personnel, equipment, and activities. Regular appropriations bills are passed annually, with the funding they provide covering one fiscal year. The fiscal year is the accounting period of the federal government, which runs from October 1 to September 30 of the following year. When Congress and the president fail to agree on and pass one or more of the regular appropriations bills, a continuing resolution can be passed instead. A continuing resolution continues the pre-existing appropriations at the same levels as the previous fiscal year for a set amount of time. Continuing resolutions typically provide funding at a rate or formula based on the previous year's funding. The funding extends until a specific date or regular appropriations bills are passed, whichever comes first. There can be some changes to some of the accounts in a continuing resolution. The continuing resolution takes the form of a joint resolution, and may provide bridging funding for existing federal programs at current, reduced, or expanded levels.

After 16 days of a federal government shutdown, Congress was able to agree to a new continuing resolution, and the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 (Pub.L. 113–46;H.R. 2775) was passed, ending the shutdown. [14] The bill funded the government until January 15, 2014, and suspended the U.S. debt ceiling until February 7, 2014. [14] After several more months of debate, Representative Paul Ryan and Senator Patty Murray announced a compromise budget on December 10, 2013. [15] That budget was called the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 (H.J.Res. 59).

Paul Ryan 54th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Paul Davis Ryan is an American politician who served as the 54th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from October 2015 to January 2019. He was also the 2012 vice presidential nominee of the Republican Party, running alongside Mitt Romney and lost.

Patty Murray United States Senator from the State of Washington

Patricia Lynn Murray is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Washington, a seat she was first elected to in 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Murray is Washington State's first female U.S. Senator.

Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 is a federal statute concerning spending and the budget in the United States, that was signed into law by President Barack Obama on December 26, 2013. On December 10, 2013, pursuant to the provisions of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 calling for a joint budget conference to work on possible compromises, Representative Paul Ryan and Senator Patty Murray announced a compromise that they had agreed to after extended discussions between them. The law raises the sequestration caps for fiscal years 2014 and 2015, in return for extending the imposition of the caps into 2022 and 2023, and miscellaneous savings elsewhere in the budget. Overall, the bill is projected to lower the deficit by $23 billion over the long term.

As the January 15, 2014 deadline to provide additional appropriations approached, the House and Senate agreed to pass another continuing resolution, this one until January 18, 2014, to provide more time to work on this omnibus appropriations bill.

Provisions of the bill

Open access

Section 527 of the bill is a provision for providing open access to research publications produced as a result of all taxpayer-funded research. Previously the NIH Public Access Policy had issued an open access mandate of this sort, requiring that NIH funded research be published in such a way that anyone could review publications presenting it through PubMed. [16] The Electronic Frontier Foundation commented saying, "this is big". [16]

Congressional Budget Office report

This summary is based on the summary provided by the Congressional Budget Office, a public domain source. [17]

CBO Estimate of Discretionary Appropriations for Fiscal year 2014, Including H.R. 3547, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, as posted on the websited of the House Committee on Rules on January 13, 2014 Congressional Budget Office Report on the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014.pdf
CBO Estimate of Discretionary Appropriations for Fiscal year 2014, Including H.R. 3547, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, as posted on the websited of the House Committee on Rules on January 13, 2014

CBO Estimate of Discretionary Appropriations for Fiscal year 2014, Including H.R. 3547, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, as posted on the website of the House Committee on Rules on January 13, 2014. [17]

SubcommitteeTotal Appropriations - Budget Authority
Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies 20,880,000
Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies 51,600,000
Defense 572,042,000
Energy and Water Development 34,060,000
Financial Services and General Government 21,851,000
Homeland Security 45,123,000
Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies 30,058,000
Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies 157,697,000
Legislative Branch 4,258,000
Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies 73,299,000
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs 49,001,000
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies 50,856,000
Total1,110,725,000

Procedural history

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 3547) began its life as the "Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act" (also H.R. 3547). The Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act was introduced into the United States House of Representatives on November 20, 2013 by Rep. Lamar Smith (R, TX-21). [18] It was referred to the United States House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. On December 2, 2013, the House voted in Roll Call Vote 612 to pass the bill 376-5. The Senate voted on December 12, 2013 to pass the bill amended by unanimous consent. [18] This sent the bill back to the House for reconsideration of the amended version.

One month later, the House and Senate leadership decided to use H.R. 3547 as a vehicle for passing the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014. The House leadership intended to vote on an amendment to the bill on January 15, 2014 so that the Senate would have a chance to work on it before the deadline. [19] That amendment turned out to be 1,500 pages long and included all of the consolidated appropriations needed to fund the federal government until October 1, 2014. [19] The original material for the Space Launch Liability Indeminification Extension Act became one paragraph in Section 8. [20]

Debate and discussion

See also

Notes/References

  1. Oleszek, Walter J. (2007). Congressional Procedures and the Policy Process. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. p. 61. ISBN   978-0-87289-303-0.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Status of Appropriations Legislation for Fiscal Year 2014". Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  3. Kasperowicz, Pete (14 January 2014). "Tuesday: Passing the short-term spending bill". The Hill. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  4. 1 2 Bill Heniff Jr.; Megan Suzanne Lynch; Jessica Tollestrup (3 December 2012). "Introduction to the Federal Budget Process" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  5. Heniff Jr., Bill (26 November 2012). "Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
  6. Gleckman, Howard. "Don't Hold Your Breath For A Budget: House, Senate Aren't Even Trying To Reconcile Bills". Forbes. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
  7. "Obama Will Send Fiscal 2014 Budget to Congress April 10". Bloomberg L.P. March 28, 2013.
  8. 1 2 "H.J.Res 59 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  9. "H.J.Res 59 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  10. Bolton, Alexander (30 September 2013). "Senate rejects House funding bill with government shutdown in clear sight". The Hill. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  11. Kasperowicz, Pete (2 October 2013). "House passes bills to fund DC, parks and medical research". The Hill. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  12. Kasperowicz, Pete (8 October 2013). "Tuesday: Education bills next up in the House". The Hill. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  13. Kasperowicz, Pete (7 October 2013). "Monday:Government shutdown enters second week". The Hill. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  14. 1 2 Montgomery, Lori; Helderman, Rosalind S. (October 16, 2013). "Obama signs bill to raise debt limit, reopen government". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
  15. Lisa desjardins; Deirdre Walsh (10 December 2013). "Budget deal aims to avert another shutdown". CNN. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  16. 1 2 Kamdar, Adi (16 January 2014). "Newly Passed Appropriations Bill Makes Even More Publicly Funded Research Available Online". eff.org. Electronic Frontier Foundation . Retrieved 20 January 2014., which highlights the relevant text in the source document
  17. 1 2 "H.R. 3547 Report" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  18. 1 2 "H.R. 3547 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  19. 1 2 Wasson, Erik (13 January 2014). "$1T omnibus spending bill unveiled". The Hill. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  20. "Rules Committee Print 113-32 House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to the Text of H.R. 3547" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 14 January 2014.

Government Sources:

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe United States Government .

Related Research Articles

The United States House Appropriations Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies is a standing committee of the U.S. House subcommittees and is within the United States House Committee on Appropriations. The United States House Committee on Appropriations has joint jurisdiction with the United States Senate Committee on Appropriations over all appropriations bills in the United States Congress. Each committee has 12 matching subcommittees, each of which is tasked with working on one of the twelve annual regular appropriations bills. This subcommittee has jurisdiction over the budget for Military Construction and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

The 2014 United States federal budget is the budget to fund government operations for the fiscal year (FY) 2014, which began on October 1, 2013 and ended on September 30, 2014.

The October 2013 mini-continuing resolutions were a set of continuing resolutions that would have provided funding for a limited set of federal agencies during the United States federal government shutdown of 2013. The bills were part of a Republican strategy to fund portions of the government which have bipartisan support, in order to spare those agencies and programs from the effects of the shutdown. The bills all passed the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress, but were ignored by the United States Senate. These selective continuing resolutions became moot upon the passage of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 which funded the entire government, ending the shutdown.

Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act

The Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act is a bill that would extend until December 31, 2014 the current limitation on liability of commercial space launch companies. Under the current system, the space launch company is liable for any damages up to $500 million, after which the U.S. Government will pay the damages in the range of $500 million to $2.7 billion. Above $2.7 billion, the company is again responsible. The Space Launch Liability Indemnification Extension Act was passed by the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress.

Making further continuing appropriations for fiscal year 2014 Funding measure in the United States

The bill H.J.Res. 106 is a continuing resolution that was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress and was signed into law on January 15, 2014 by President Barack Obama. The bill amends the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 to extend the time-period of funding provided by that continuing resolution from January 15, 2014 to January 18, 2014. The extension is in intended to give Congress the extra time it needs to pass the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, which would provide the rest of the appropriations for fiscal year 2014. The fiscal year in the United States is the 12-month period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30 of the next calendar year.

In the United States Congress, an appropriations bill is legislation to appropriate federal funds to specific federal government departments, agencies and programs. The money provides funding for operations, personnel, equipment and activities. Regular appropriations bills are passed annually, with the funding they provide covering one fiscal year. The fiscal year is the accounting period of the federal government, which runs from October 1 to September 30 of the following year. Appropriations bills are under the jurisdiction of the United States House Committee on Appropriations and the United States Senate Committee on Appropriations. Both Committees have twelve matching subcommittees, each tasked with working on one of the twelve annual regular appropriations bills.

The 2015 United States federal budget is the federal budget for fiscal year 2015, which runs from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. The budget takes the form of a budget resolution which must be agreed to by both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate in order to become final, but never receives the signature or veto of the President of the United States and does not become law. Until both the House and the Senate pass the same concurrent resolution, no final budget exists. Actual U.S. federal government spending will occur through later appropriations legislation that is signed into law.

Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015

The Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 is a bill that would make appropriations for fiscal year 2015 for military construction and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. The bill is considered one of the two easiest appropriations bills to pass each year. The total amount appropriated by the introduced version of the bill is $71.5 billion, approximately $1.8 billion less than fiscal year 2014 due to a decrease in the need for military construction.

Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2015

The Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2015 is an appropriations bill that would make appropriations for the United States Congress for fiscal year 2015. The bill is considered one of the two easiest appropriations bills to pass each year. The bill would appropriate $3.3 billion to the legislative branch for FY 2015, which is approximately the same amount it received in FY 2014.

Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015

The Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 is an appropriations bill that would fund the United States Department of Commerce, the United States Department of Justice, and various related agencies. Those agencies included the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Commission on Civil Rights, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the International Trade Commission, the Legal Services Corporation, the Marine Mammal Commission, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, and the State Justice Institute. The total amount of money appropriated in the bill was $51.2 billion, approximately $400 million less than fiscal year 2014.

Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2015

The Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2015 is an appropriations bill that would provide funding for the United States Department of Defense for fiscal year 2015 of approximately $491 billion.

Every year, the United States Congress is responsible for writing, passing, reconciling, and submitting to the President of the United States a series of appropriations bills that appropriate money to specific federal government departments, agencies, and programs for their use to operate in the subsequent fiscal year. The money provides funding for operations, personnel, equipment, and activities. In 2014, Congress was responsible for passing the appropriations bills that would fund the federal government in fiscal year 2015, which runs from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015.

Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2015

The Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act, 2015 is an appropriations bill for fiscal year 2015 that would provide funding for the United States Department of the Treasury, as we all as the United States federal courts, the Executive Office of the President of the United States, and Washington, D.C..

The 2017 United States federal budget is the United States federal budget for fiscal year 2017, which lasted from October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017. President Barack Obama submitted a budget proposal to the 114th Congress on February 9, 2016. The 2017 fiscal year overlaps the end of the Obama administration and the beginning of the Trump administration.

The United States federal budget for fiscal year 2019 runs from October 1, 2018 to September 30, 2019. Five appropriations bills were passed in September 2018, the first time five bills had been enacted on time in 22 years, with the rest of the government being funded through a series of three continuing resolutions. A gap between the second and third of these led to the 2018–19 federal government shutdown. The remainder of government funding was enacted as an omnibus spending bill in February 2019.