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|Type||armistice agreement de facto peace treaty|
|Signed||14 August 1814|
|Expiration||Three weeks following the first parliamentary session, effectively indefinitely|
|Signatories||Generals Magnus Björnstjerna and A. F. Skjöldebrand of Sweden, ministers Niels Aall and Jonas Collett of the Government of Norway|
The Convention of Moss (Mossekonvensjonen) was a ceasefire agreement signed on 14 August 1814 between the King of Sweden and the Norwegian government. It followed the Swedish-Norwegian War due to Norway's claim to sovereignty. It also became the de facto peace agreement and formed the basis for the personal union between Sweden and Norway that was established when the Norwegian Storting (Parliament) elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November 1814. The Union lasted until Norway declared its dissolution in 1905.
In 1814, Denmark–Norway was on the losing side in the Napoleonic wars. Under the Treaty of Kiel, negotiated on 14 January 1814, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden, of the new House of Bernadotte. In an attempt to take control of their destiny, the Norwegians convened a constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll and, on 17 May 1814, signed the Constitution of Norway. The viceroy and heir to the thrones of Denmark and Norway, Prince Christian Frederik, was elected by the assembly as king.
The de facto Swedish ruler, Crown Prince Charles John, acting on behalf of King Charles XIII of Sweden, rejected the premise of an independent Norway and launched a military campaign on July 2, 1814 with an attack on the Hvaler islands and the city of Fredrikstad. The Swedish army was superior in numbers, better equipped and trained and was led by one of Napoleon's foremost generals, the newly-elected Swedish crown prince, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte.
The hostilities opened on 26 July with a swift Swedish naval attack against the Norwegian gunboats at Hvaler. The Norwegian vessels managed to escape, but they did not take part in the rest of the war. The main Swedish thrust came across the border at Halden, bypassing and surrounding the fortress of Fredriksten, and then continuing north, and a second force of 6,000 soldiers landed at Kråkerøy, outside of Fredrikstad. The town surrendered the next day.
That was the start of a pincer movement around the main part of the Norwegian army at Rakkestad. The Norwegian army delivered several offensive blows to the Swedes, thus applying pressure on the Swedes to accept Norway as a sovereign nation and to open up negotiations. The tactic worked, and when talks began on 7 August, Charles John accepted the democratic Norwegian constitution. Armistice negotiations were concluded by Norway at Moss on 14 August 1814 and by Sweden in the city of Fredrikstad on 15 August 1814.
The Treaty of Kiel was thus tacitly subdued and a new union on more equal terms negotiated. The convention comprised four documents with the following main points:
The greatest disagreement was in the question of Christian Frederick's unconditional renunciation of the throne, which he had to accept and to find a wording that meant that the Union should not be entered into as a result of the Kiel Treaty but by the treaty that became signed on Moss. At Norway's insistence, the parties agreed on a wording that avoided declaring the Swedish king to be the Norwegian king before he was elected by the Storting. The Norwegian Council of State (Det Norske Statsrådsalen) would, until further notice, take over the executive authority and sign its decisions with highest authority (paa allerhøieste Befaling). That was one formulation that the Norwegians could accept since it did not mean that the King of Sweden had become King of Norway on January 14.
Many Norwegians were shocked by their government's concessions, and when Swedish General Magnus Björnstjerna, who had led the Swedish negotiations, arrived in Christiania, Norway, he got an unfriendly welcome. Norwegians also directed their resentment toward their own leaders and what they perceived as an ineffective military defence. Over time, public opinion shifted. The convention was a significant improvement over the terms dictated to Denmark–Norway at the Treaty of Kiel. Notably, Norway was no longer to be treated as a Swedish conquest but as an equal party in a union of two independent states. Both the principle and the substance of the Norwegian Constitution were accepted. Christian Frederik's actions in 1814 greatly helped in allowing Norway to go into the union with Sweden as an equal and independent part in which Norway retained its own parliament and separate institutions except for the common king and foreign service.
That was the last war between Sweden and Norway as well as Sweden's last war.
Constitution of Norway was adopted on 16 May and signed on 17 May 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll. It was considered one of the world's most liberal and democratic constitutions, and it is the second oldest written single-document national constitution in Europe after the Constitution of Poland, and the second oldest working national constitution after the Constitution of the United States. 17 May is the National Day of Norway.
Christian VIII was the king of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814.
Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway, officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its peaceful dissolution in 1905.
The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp while Denmark–Norway was allied to France.
In August 1814, after a loss in the Swedish–Norwegian War, Kingdom of Norway was forced to join in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden, thereby becoming subject to a naval blockade by the United Kingdom, but remaining largely autonomous within the union. Although nationalist aspirations were not to be fully realized until the events of 1905, 1814 was the crisis and turning point in events that would lead to a fully independent Norway.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples. The region is in northern Europe, and consists of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Finland and Iceland are at times, especially in English-speaking contexts, considered part of Scandinavia.
Fredrikstad fortress was a fortification in Fredrikstad, Norway. It was the base of the Østfold Regiment, with defence related responsibilities for the east side of Oslofjord.
The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway, War with Sweden 1814, or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814. The war was a Swedish victory and led to Norway being forced into the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, a union with Sweden under the Swedish king Charles XIII but with Norway having its own constitution and parliament.
Johan Caspar Herman Wedel Jarlsberg was a Norwegian statesman and count. He played an active role in the constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814 and was the first native Norwegian to hold the post of governor-general during the union with Sweden.
The Norwegian Constituent Assembly is the name given to the 1814 Constitutional Assembly at Eidsvoll in Norway, that voted the Norwegian Constitution and formalised the dissolution of the union with Denmark. In Norway, it is often just referred to as Eidsvollsforsamlingen, which means The Assembly of Eidsvoll.
The Battle of the Square was a skirmish between Norwegian demonstrators and forces of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway that took place in Christiania in the evening of 17 May 1829.
Events in the year 1814 in Norway.
The Danish State Bankruptcy of 1813 was a domestic economic crisis that began in January 1813 and had consequential effects until 1818. As Denmark struggled with the financial burden that the Napoleonic wars had on the economy, the devaluation of the currency had negative effects on merchants, citizens and businesses alike.
Denmark–Norway, also known as the Dano–Norwegian Realm, the Oldenburg Monarchy, or the Oldenburg realms, was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway, the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein. The state also claimed sovereignty over two historical peoples: Wends and Gutes. Denmark–Norway had several colonies, namely the Danish Gold Coast, the Nicobar Islands, Serampore, Tharangambadi, and the Danish West Indies.
The Meeting of Notables was a meeting that took place before Norway declared independence from Denmark in 1814.
The Union between Sweden and Norway is an overriding theme of the history of Sweden in the 19th century. On 4 November 1814, the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway formed a personal union under one king. The two countries had completely separate institutions, except for the foreign service led by the king through the Swedish foreign minister.
The invasion of Hvaler was a Swedish military invasion during the Swedish-Norwegian War of 1814.
The Dano–Swedish War of 1808–1809 was a war between Denmark–Norway and Sweden due to Denmark–Norway's alliance with France and Sweden's alliance with the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars. Neither Sweden nor Denmark-Norway had wanted war to begin with but once pushed into it through their respective alliances, Sweden made a bid to acquire Norway by way of invasion while Denmark-Norway made ill-fated attempts to reconquer territories lost to Sweden in the 17th century. Peace was concluded on grounds of status quo ante bellum on 10 December 1809.
The Battle of Langnes, or the Battle of Langnes Entrenchment, was a battle fought between Norway and Sweden as a part of the Swedish-Norwegian War of 1814. The battle, even as it ended inconclusively, served as a tactical victory to the Norwegians since they now could avoid an unconditional surrender to the Swedish.
Fredrikstad Fortress, under the command of Nils Christian Frederik Hals, was captured by the Swedish armed forces on 4 August 1814. Only 207 men remained in the fortress as the Norwegian surrendered to the Swedes; the rest had evacuated earlier. The Swedish casualties were few, only 7 men killed and 12 wounded from the army, navy and Archipelago fleet combined.