Convention of Moss

Last updated
Convention of Moss (Mossekonvensjonen)
Type armistice agreement de facto peace treaty
Signed14 August 1814
Location Moss, Norway
EffectiveImmediately
ExpirationThree weeks following the first parliamentary session, effectively indefinitely
SignatoriesGenerals Magnus Björnstjerna and A. F. Skjöldebrand of Sweden, ministers Niels Aall and Jonas Collett of the Government of Norway
Language French

The Convention of Moss (Mossekonvensjonen) was a cease fire agreement, signed on 14 August 1814 between the King of Sweden and the Norwegian government. It followed the Swedish-Norwegian War due to Norway's claim to sovereignty. It also became the de facto peace agreement and formed the basis for the personal union between Sweden and Norway that was established when the Norwegian Storting (Parliament) elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November 1814. The Union lasted until Norway declared its dissolution in 1905. [1]

Norway Country in Northern Europe

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.

Storting supreme legislature of Norway

The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. It is located in Oslo. The unicameral parliament has 169 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plurinominal constituencies. A member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a stortingsrepresentant, literally "Storting representative".

Contents

Background

In 1814, Denmark–Norway was on the losing side in the Napoleonic wars. Under the terms of at the Treaty of Kiel negotiated on 14 January 1814, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden. In an attempt to take control of their destiny the Norwegians convened a constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll, and on 17 May 1814 signed the Constitution of Norway. The viceroy and heir to the thrones of Denmark and Norway, prince Christian Frederik, was elected by the assembly as king. [2]

Denmark–Norway personal union in Northern Europe between 1524-1814

Denmark–Norway, also known as the Dano–Norwegian Realm, the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms, was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway, the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein. The state also claimed sovereignty over two historical peoples: Wends and Goths. Denmark–Norway had several colonies, namely the Danish Gold Coast, the Nicobar Islands, Serampore, Tharangambadi, and the Danish West Indies.

Treaty of Kiel 1814 peace treaty between the UK plus Sweden, and Denmark–Norway

The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp while Denmark–Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.

Eidsvoll Municipality in Akershus, Norway

Eidsvoll  is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Romerike traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Sundet.

The de facto Swedish ruler, crown prince Charles John, acting on behalf of King Charles XIII of Sweden, rejected the premise of an independent Norway and launched a military campaign on July 2, 1814 with an attack on the Hvaler islands and the city of Fredrikstad. The Swedish army was superior in numbers, was better equipped and trained, and was led by one of Napoleon's foremost generals, the newly elected Swedish crown prince, Charles John — Jean Baptiste Bernadotte.

Charles XIII of Sweden King of Sweden and Norway between 1809-1814

Charles XIII & II also Carl, Swedish: Karl XIII, was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.

Hvaler Municipality in Østfold, Norway

Hvaler is a municipality that is a group of islands in the southwestern part of Østfold County, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Skjærhalden, on the island of Kirkeøy. The only police station in the municipality is located in Skjærhalden. Hvaler was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838.

Fredrikstad Municipality in Østfold, Norway

Fredrikstad is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Fredrikstad.

The hostilities opened on 26 July with a swift Swedish naval attack against the Norwegian gunboats at Hvaler. The Norwegian vessels managed to escape, but they did not take part in the rest of the war. The main Swedish thrust came across the border at Halden, bypassing and surrounding the fortress of Fredriksten, and then continuing north, while a second force of 6,000 soldiers landed at Kråkerøy outside of Fredrikstad. This town surrendered the next day. This was the start of a pincer movement around the main part of the Norwegian army at Rakkestad. The Norwegian army delivered several offensive blows to the Swedes, thus applying pressure on the Swedes to accept Norway as a sovereign nation, and opening up negotiations. The tactic worked; when talks began on 7 August, Charles John accepted the democratic Norwegian constitution. Armistice negotiations were concluded by Norway at Moss on 14 August 1814 and by Sweden in the city of Fredrikstad on 15 August 1814.

Moss, Norway Municipality in Østfold, Norway

Moss  is a coastal town and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Moss. The city of Moss was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The rural municipality of Jeløy was merged with the city on 1 July 1943.

Terms

The Treaty of Kiel was thus tacitly subdued and a new union on more equal terms negotiated. The convention comprised four documents with the following main points:

Niels Aall Norwegian politician

Niels Aall was a Norwegian estate owner, businessman and politician.

Jonas Collett Norwegian civil servant and politician

Jonas Collett was a Norwegian legislator, public official and statesman. He was the First minister of Norway (1822-1836).

The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed. Moss Ironworks main office2005-20-03.jpg
The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed.

The greatest disagreement was in the question of Christian Frederick's unconditional renunciation of the throne, which he had to accept, and to find a wording that meant that the Union should not be entered into as a result of the Kiel Treaty, but by the treaty that became signed on Moss. At this point, the Norwegian dealers stood firmly. And the parties agreed on a wording who refrained from declaring the Swedish king as the Norwegian king before he was elected by the Storting. The Norwegian Council of State (Det Norske Statsrådsalen) would until further notice, take over the executive authority and sign its decisions with highest authority (paa allerhøieste Befaling). This was one formulation that the Norwegians could accept, since it did not mean that Sweden's king had already become King of Norway on January 14. [3] [4]

Many Norwegians were shocked by their government's concessions, and when the Swedish general Magnus Björnstjerna, who had led the Swedish negotiations, arrived in Christiania, Norway, he got an unfriendly welcome. Norwegians also directed their resentment toward their own leaders and what they perceived as an ineffective military defence. Over time, public opinion shifted. The convention was a significant improvement over the terms dictated to Denmark–Norway at the treaty of Kiel. Notably, Norway was no longer to be treated as a Swedish conquest but rather as an equal party in a union of two independent states. Both the principle and substance of the Norwegian Constitution were accepted. Much due to Christian Frederik's actions during 1814, Norway could go in to the union with Sweden as an equal and independent part, where Norway retained its own parliament and separate institutions, except for the common king and foreign service. [5]

This was the last war between Sweden and Norway, and Sweden's last war. [6]

See also

Coordinates: 59°26′22″N10°40′10″E / 59.43944°N 10.66944°E / 59.43944; 10.66944

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References

  1. Morten Nordhagen Ottosen. "Mossekonvensjonen". Norges historie. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  2. "Mosse-konvensjonen". kulturradet.no. March 7, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  3. "Eidsvoll og Grunnloven 1814". Stortinget. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  4. "Statsrådsalen". kongehuset. November 9, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  5. Knut Dørum. "Christian Frederik". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  6. "Sweden and Norway celebrate peace treaty". The Local Europe AB. 14 August 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2019.

Other sources