In Peru the Cordillera Occidental is the western branch of the Andes. It bounds to the west with coastal plains or falls directly into the Pacific along cliffed coasts. To the east of Cordillera Occidental lies the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Oriental of Peru. As with other parts of the Peruvian Andes the Cordillera Occedental bears evidence on the Andean orogeny.
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km wide, and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
A cliffed coast, also called an abrasion coast, is a form of coast where the action of marine waves has formed steep cliffs that may or may not be precipitous. It contrasts with a flat or alluvial coast.
The Republic of Colombia is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in North America. Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti. Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Despite its large territory, Colombia's population is not evenly distributed, with most Colombians living in the mountainous western portion of the country as well as the northern coastline, most living in or near the capital city of Bogotá. The southern and eastern portions of the country are mostly sparsely inhabited tropical rainforest, and inland tropical plains containing large estates or large livestock farms, oil and gas production facilities, small farming communities and indigenous tribes.
The geography of Bolivia includes the Eastern Andes Mountain Range which bisects Bolivia roughly from north to south. To the east of that mountain chain are lowland plains of the Amazon Basin, and to the west is the Altiplano which is a highland plateau where Lake Titicaca is located. Bolivia's geography has features similar to those of Peru which abuts Bolivia's northwest border; like Bolivia, Peru is bisected from north to south by the Eastern Andes Mountains, and these two countries share Lake Titicaca which is the highest navigable lake on Earth. Unlike Peru, however, Bolivia is one of the two landlocked countries in South America, the other being Paraguay which is located along Bolivia's southeast border.
The American Cordillera is a chain of mountain ranges (cordilleras) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, South America and West Antarctica. It is also the backbone of the volcanic arc that forms the eastern half of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges. The term is a borrowing from Spanish, in which it has the same meaning. The Spanish word originates from cordilla, a diminutive of "cuerda", or "rope". It is most commonly used in the field of physical geography.
Central Cordillera refers to the New Guinea Highlands.
The Cordillera Occidental is the lowest in elevation of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The average altitude is 2,000 m (6,600 ft) and the highest peak is Cerro Tatamá at 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Nariño Department, passes north through Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Risaralda, Chocó, and Caldas Departments to the Paramillo Massif in Antioquia and Córdoba Departments. From this massif the range divides further to form the Serranías de Ayapel, San Jerónimo and Abibe. Only to recede into the Caribbean plain and the Sinú River valley.
The Cordillera Oriental is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Huila Department to Norte de Santander Department where it splits into the Serranía del Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuelan Andes. The highest peak is Ritacuba Blanco at 5,410 m (17,750 ft) in the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.
The Cordillera Oriental or Eastern Cordillera is a set of parallel mountain ranges of the Bolivian Andes, emplaced on the eastern and north eastern margin of the Andes. Large parts of Cordillera Oriental are forested and humid areas rich in agricultural and livestock products. Geologically, the Cordillera Oriental is formed by the Central Andean fold and thrust belt.
The section of the Cordillera Oriental in Peru is in the extreme south-west of the area of study, where manifestation like the spurs of the eastern flank. This unit has modelled itself on metamorphic rocks of the Paleozoic. The eastern limit is more or less uniform and Colorado is located in the beginnings of the tributaries of the valley of the river. It crosses for the average basin of the Marcapata River and goes out of the area of study for Lanlacuni Bajo.
Microryzomys minutus, also known as the montane colilargo or the forest small rice rat, is a species of rodent in the genus Microryzomys of family Cricetidae. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, but these populations may represent more than one species.
The ocellated tapaculo is a large bird found in the northern Andes in South America. It is a highly distinctive tapaculo; traditionally united with its closest relatives in the Rhinocryptidae, this family is paraphyletic with the Formicariidae (ground-antbirds) but instead of merging the tapaculos with the ground-antbird family, recent sources tend to split the antpittas from the Formicariidae.
The Andean orogeny is an ongoing process of orogeny that began in the Early Jurassic and is responsible for the rise of the Andes mountains. The orogeny is driven by a reactivation of a long-lived subduction system along the western margin of South America. On a continental scale the Cretaceous and Oligocene were periods of re-arrangements in the orogeny. Locally the details of the nature of the orogeny varies depending on the segment and the geological period considered.
The geology of Bolivia comprises a variety of different lithologies as well as tectonic and sedimentary environments. On a synoptic scale, geological units coincide with topographical units. The country is divided into a mountainous western area affected by the subduction processes in the Pacific and an eastern lowlands of stable platforms and shields. The Bolivian Andes is divided into three main ranges; these are from west to east: the Cordillera Occidental that makes up the border to Chile and host several active volcanoes and geothermal areas, Cordillera Central once extensively mined for silver and tin and the relatively low Cordillera Oriental that rather than being a range by its own is the eastern continuation of the Central Cordillera as a fold and thrust belt. Between the Occidental and Central Cordillera the approximately 3,750-meter-high Altiplano high plateau extends. This basin hosts several freshwater lakes, including Lake Titicaca as well as salt-covered dry lakes that bring testimony of past climate changes and lake cycles. The eastern lowlands and sub-Andean zone in Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, and Tarija Departments was once an old Paleozoic sedimentary basin that hosts valuable hydrocarbon reserves. Further east close to the border with Brazil lies the Guaporé Shield, made up of stable Precambrian crystalline rock.
Nudo de los Pastos, in English meaning "Knot of the Pastos" or also known as the "Massif of Huaca", is an Andean orographic complex located in the Ecuadorian province of Carchi and the Colombian department of Nariño. It covers the intricate mountain region where the Andes splits into two branches on entering Colombia: the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Central.
The Cordillera Carabaya lies in the Andes of Peru. It extends between 14°00' and 14°22'S and 69°38' and 70°19'W for about 75 km. It is located in the Puno Region, Carabaya Province, between the Vilcanota mountain range in the north-west and the Apolobamba mountain range in the south-east, north and north-east of Macusani.
Allincapac,Allin Ccapac or Allin Japac is a mountain in the Andes of Peru. It is the highest peak of the Carabaya mountain range, rising up to 5,805 metres (19,045 ft). Allincapac is located in the Puno Region, Carabaya Province, Macusani District, south of Huaynaccapac, northeast of Chichicapac and north of Lake Chaupicocha.
The Altiplano Basin is a sedimentary basin within the Andes in Bolivia and Peru. The basin is located on the Altiplano plateau between the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental. Over-all the basin has evolved through time in a context of horizontal shortening of Earth's crust. The great thickness of the sediments accumulated in the basin is mostly the result of the erosion of Cordillera Oriental.
The Casma Group is a stratigraphic group of Cretaceous sedimentary formations exposed along the coast and within the Cordillera Occidental near Casma, Peru.
Coropuna is a dormant volcano in the southern Peruvian Andes and belonging to the Central Volcanic Zone; its summit reaches an altitude of 6,377 metres above sea level. The volcano, located 155 kilometres from Arequipa, is mostly made of lava flows on a basement formed by Miocene ignimbrites. Coropuna has been active for at least five million years, with the bulk of the current cone having formed during the Pliocene–Pleistocene.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
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§Traduccion§ En Perú, la Cordillera Occidental es la rama occidental de los Andes. Limita al oeste con llanuras costeras o cae directamente en el Pacífico a lo largo de costas acantiladas. Al este de la Cordillera Occidental se encuentra la Cordillera Central y la Cordillera Oriental del Perú. Al igual que con otras partes de los Andes peruanos, la Cordillera Occedental evidencia sobre la orogenia andina