Demid Ilyich Kulikalov

Last updated

Demid Ilyich Kulikalov was an administrator of Russian America during the first decade of the 19th century. He served in the Russian-American Company for several decades, led early expeditions into what is now Alaska, administered RAC interests in the Pribilof Islands, and headed the Russian-American Company's Atka station.

Russian America Russian colonial possessions in the Americas

Russian America was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867. Its capital was Novo-Archangelsk, which is now Sitka, Alaska, USA. Settlements spanned parts of what are now the U.S. states of California, Alaska and two ports in Hawaii. Formal incorporation of the possessions by Russia did not take place until the Ukase of 1799 which established a monopoly for the Russian–American Company and also granted the Russian Orthodox Church certain rights in the new possessions. Many of its possessions were abandoned in the 19th century. In 1867, Russia sold its last remaining possessions to the United States of America for $7.2 million.

Russian-American Company company

The "Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty" was a state-sponsored chartered company formed largely on the basis of the United American Company. The company was chartered by Tsar Paul I in the Ukase of 1799. Its mission was to establish new settlements in Russian America, conduct trade with natives, and carry out an expanded colonization program.

Alaska State of the United States of America

Alaska is a U.S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, and it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. It is the largest U.S. state by area and the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the 3rd least populous and the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States; nevertheless, it is by far the most populous territory located mostly north of the 60th parallel in North America: its population—estimated at 738,432 by the United States Census Bureau in 2015— is more than quadruple the combined populations of Northern Canada and Greenland. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, and oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy.

Kulikalov's origins with the Russian-American Company are unclear. In 1794, he was the co-leader of the first Russian expedition from Kodiak Island to explore Yakutat Bay, [1] a hunting expedition that covered much of the southern coast of Alaska and included more than 1,000 natives and Russians. [2]

Kodiak Island island in the United States of America

Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. The largest island in the Kodiak Archipelago, Kodiak Island is the second largest island in the United States and the 80th largest island in the world, with an area of 9,311.24 km2 (3,595.09 sq mi), slightly larger than Cyprus. It is 160 km long and in width ranges from 16 to 97 kilometers. Kodiak Island is the namesake for Kodiak Seamount, which lies off the coast at the Aleutian Trench. The largest community on the island is the city of Kodiak, Alaska.

Yakutat Bay bay

Yakutat Bay is a 29-km-wide (18 mi) bay in the U.S. state of Alaska, extending southwest from Disenchantment Bay to the Gulf of Alaska. "Yakutat" is a Tlingit name reported as "Jacootat" and "Yacootat" by Yuri Lisianski in 1805.

In 1805, Kulikalov ordered to head the RAC's organization in the Andreanof Islands. [1] Before he departed the RAC's base of operations in Unalaska, however, he was flogged on the orders of Nikolai Rezanov for alleged cruelty to an Aleut woman and her child and was expelled from Russian America in chains. [3] Kuliakalov was a trusted assistant to Russian America governor Alexander Baranov, [4] and either returned to the colony or was never transported out (sources are unclear). Kuliakalov was put in charge of establishing a colony on St. Matthew Island in 1809 and returned to Unalaska in 1810. That year, Kulikalov unsuccessfully sought to have an illegitimate child (born through a partnership with an Aleut woman) sent to Russia for education. The reason given was that Kulikalov "had legitimate children in Irkutsk." Ten years later, Baranov's intervention secured son a trip to St. Petersburg, and he later returned to Russian America. [5]

Andreanof Islands group of islands in the Aleutian Islands

The Andreanof Islands are a group of islands in the Aleutian Islands, in southwestern Alaska. They are located at about 52° North and 172°57' to 179°09' West.

Nikolai Rezanov Russian noble and explorer

Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov was a Russian nobleman and statesman who promoted the project of Russian colonization of Alaska and California to three successive Tsars—Catherine the Great, Paul, and Aleksander I. Aleksander I commissioned him as Russian ambassador to Japan (1804) to conclude a commercial treaty. In order to get there he was appointed co-commander of the First Russian circumnavigation (1803-1806), led by Adam Johann von Krusenstern. Rezanov departed the expedition when it reached Kamchatka after visiting Japan where he was unsuccessful in his ambassadorial mission. He was also the author of a lexicon of the Japanese language and of several other works, which are preserved in the library of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, of which he was a member. Rezanov's biggest legacy was the Russian-American Company.

Aleut

The Aleuts, who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan, Unangas, Унаңан, are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands.

Related Research Articles

Russian colonization of the Americas period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast of America

The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas. Russian colonial possessions in the Americas are collectively known as Russian America. Russian expansion eastward began in 1552, and in 1639 Russian explorers reached the Pacific Ocean. In 1725, Emperor Peter the Great ordered navigator Vitus Bering to explore the North Pacific for potential colonization. The Russians were primarily interested in the abundance of fur-bearing mammals on Alaska's coast, as stocks had been depleted by over hunting in Siberia. Bering's first voyage was foiled by thick fog and ice, but in 1741 a second voyage by Bering and Aleksei Chirikov made sight of the North American mainland.

Unalaska, Alaska City in Alaska, United States

Unalaska is the chief center of population in the Aleutian Islands. The city is in the Aleutians West Census Area, a regional component of the Unorganized Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. Unalaska is located on Unalaska Island and neighboring Amaknak Island in the Aleutian Islands off mainland Alaska. The population was 4,376 at the 2010 census, which is 79% of the entire Aleutians West Census Area. Unalaska is the second largest city in the Unorganized Borough, behind Bethel.

Alexander Andreyevich Baranov trader and manager of trading posts in Russian America

Alexander Andreyevich Baranov, sometimes spelled Aleksandr or Alexandr and Baranof, was a Russian trader and merchant, who worked for some time in Siberia. He was recruited by the Shelikov Company for trading in Russian America, beginning in 1790 with a five-year contract as manager of the outpost. He continued to serve past the end date of his contract.

Ludwig von Hagemeister Russian explorer

Ludwig Karl August von Hagemeister was a Baltic German who held the rank of Captain of the 1st rank in the Imperial Russian Navy. He was a maritime explorer of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, and served briefly in 1817-1818 as the second Chief Manager of the Russian-American Company.

Battle of Sitka

The Battle of Sitka (1804) was the last major armed conflict between Russians and Alaska Natives, and was initiated in response to the destruction of a Russian trading post two years before. The primary combatant groups were the Kiks.ádi Clan of Sheetʼká Xʼáatʼi of the Tlingit nation and agents of the Russian-American Company assisted by the Imperial Russian Navy.

Indian River (Alaska) watershed that flows through the community of Sitka on Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska

Indian River is a roughly eight-mile long watershed that flows through the community of Sitka on Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska.

Sitka Sound

Sitka Sound is a body of water near the city of Sitka, Alaska. It is bordered by Baranof Island to the south and the northeast, by Kruzof Island to the northwest and by the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. During the early 19th century it was a major locus of the maritime fur trade.

Yakobi Island island in the United States of America

Yakobi Island is an island in the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska, United States. It lies to the south of Cross Sound and just off the western edge of Chichagof Island, separated from it by Lisianski Inlet and Lisianski Strait. The island has a land area of 82.37 sq mi (213.3 km²) and no permanent resident population.

Unga Island island in the United States of America

Unga Island is the largest of the Shumagin Islands off the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska, United States. The island has a land area of 170.73 sq mi (442.188 km²), making it the 36th largest island in the United States. As of the 2000 census, it had a permanent population of one.

Nora Marks Dauenhauer American Tlingit writer and poet

Nora Marks Keixwnéi Dauenhauer was a Tlingit poet, short-story writer, and Tlingit language scholar from Alaska. She won an American Book Award for Russians in Tlingit America: The Battles of Sitka, 1802 And 1804. Nora was Alaska State Writer Laureate from 2012 - 2014.

Richard Dauenhauer American poet, linguist, and translator

Richard Dauenhauer was an American poet, linguist, and translator who married into, and subsequently became an expert on, the Tlingit nation of southeastern Alaska. He was married to the Tlingit poet and scholar Nora Marks Dauenhauer. With his wife and Lydia T. Black, he won an American Book Award for Russians in Tlingit America: The Battles of Sitka, 1802 And 1804

Castle Hill (Sitka, Alaska) National Historic Landmark and state park in Sitka, Alaska, USA

Castle Hill, also known as the American Flag-Raising Site and now as the Baranof Castle State Historic Site, is a National Historic Landmark and state park in Sitka, Alaska. The hill, providing a commanding view over the city, is the historical site of Tlingit and Russian forts, and the location where Russian Alaska was formally handed over to the United States in 1867. It is also where the 49-star United States flag was first flown after Alaska became a state in 1959.

Unalaska Island island in Alaska, United States of America

Unalaska is an island in the Fox Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in the US state of Alaska located at 53°38′N167°00′W. The island has a land area of 1,051 square miles (2,720 km2). It measures 79.4 mi (127.8 km) long and 34.7 mi (55.8 km) wide. The city of Unalaska, Alaska, covers part of the island and all of neighboring Amaknak Island where the Port of Dutch Harbor is located. The population of the island excluding Amaknak as of the 2000 census was 1,759 residents.

Evstratii Ivanovich Delarov was a Greek-born mariner who served with several Russian maritime fur trade companies in Russian America. He was born in Ottoman Macedonia. He was the first documented Greek explorer and merchant to arrive in Alaska.

Semyon Ivanovich Yanovsky was a Russian naval officer who was appointed in late 1818 as Chief Manager of the Russian-American Company, serving into 1820. He had traveled to Kodiak Island with his commanding officer, Ludwig von Hagemeister, who appointed him to the post. The Russian-American Company conducted trading and colonization based in present-day Alaska. Yanovsky was replaced in 1820 by Matvey Ivanovich Muravyev, who had been selected by the Board of the RAC.

Matvey Ivanovich Muravyev was a Russian explorer and officer of the Russian Imperial Navy. In 1820 he was appointed by the Russian-American Company as Chief Manager, based in present-day Alaska and responsible for the company's colonization and trading efforts.

References

Lydia T. Black Ukrainian American anthropologist

Lydia T. Black was an American anthropologist. She won an American Book Award for Russians in Tlingit America: The Battles of Sitka, 1802 And 1804.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Notes

  1. 1 2 Russians in Tlingit America, pp. 417
  2. The Tlingit Indians, pp. 325
  3. Russians in Alaska, pp. 133
  4. Russians in Alaska, pp. 171
  5. Russians in Alaska, pp. 213