Government Palace of Chihuahua

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The Government Palace in Chihuahua ChihPalGob1.jpg
The Government Palace in Chihuahua

The Government Palace of Chihuahua (Palacio de Gobierno de Chihuahua) is a 19th-century building in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Located in the heart of the city, it is of special interest since it houses the executive offices of the governor of the state of Chihuahua and, until 2004, the state legislature met here. The building is a landmark in the city as it contains a shrine commemorating the execution of Miguel Hidalgo, considered the Father of the Country, who died at the hands of a Spanish firing squad on July 30, 1811. The Altar de la Patria, or Altar of the Fatherland is located at the exact spot where Fr Hidalgo died.

The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation. Pater Patriae, also seen as Parens Patriae, was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fatherland", bestowed by the Senate on heroes, and later on emperors. In monarchies, the monarch was often considered the "father/mother of the nation" or as a patriarch to guide his family. This concept is expressed in the Divine Right espoused in some monarchies, while in others it is codified into constitutional law as in Spain, where the monarch is considered the personification and embodiment, the symbol of the unity and permanence of the nation. In Thailand, the monarch is given the same recognition, and demonstrated loyalty is enforced with severe criminal statutes.

History

Panel of mural showing the death of Hidalgo, next to the altar ChihHidalgo1.jpg
Panel of mural showing the death of Hidalgo, next to the altar
The Altar of the Fatherland; The spot where Fr Hidalgo was executed by the Spanish. ChihAltar.jpg
The Altar of the Fatherland; The spot where Fr Hidalgo was executed by the Spanish.

Originally, a Jesuit College stood on the site. In 1767 the Society of Jesus was expelled from New Spain, and the building remained abandoned until it was converted into a military hospital in 1790, and was acquired by the Federal Government in 1859 after the Laws of Reform had been passed by the liberal regime of President Benito Juárez.

Society of Jesus male religious congregation of the Catholic Church

The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue.

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Benito Juárez President of Mexico during XIX century

Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

The old building was razed in 1878 after being turned over to the State Government, and the new Government Palace was begun in 1881 under the administration of Governor Luis Terrazas and placed under the supervision of Engineer-Architect Pedro Ignacio Irigoyen, with the assistance of Enrique Esperón and Carlos Moreno. A new street was opened and the old site of the Jesuit College was divided into two squares by Calle Libertad. The Government Palace occupies the lot south of Libertad, while on the northern side of the street stood the Chihuahua Federal Branch Mint, built after the demolition of the former college, demolished in turn in 1908, and is now the site of the Museo Casa Chihuahua, once the Federal Palace of Chihuahua, which was itself inaugurated in 1910.

The Creel-Terrazas Family is a powerful and wealthy family based in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

Museo Casa Chihuahua

Casa Chihuahua Centro de Patrimonio Cultural, once known as the Federal Palace of Chihuahua, is an early 20th-century building in the city centre of Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico. It served as the federal building for the city until 2004, when it was renovated as a city museum, specialising in travelling exhibits. It also houses, in the basement, the jail cell of father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, considered the Father of the Nation. Father Hidalgo was the first leader of the insurgency for independence from Spain. He was captured by the Spaniards early in 1811, tried and executed on 30 July 1811 at the neighbouring Government Palace. His jail cell is a national shrine.

It took almost ten years to complete the work, and on September 11, 1891, the building was ready for occupancy, being officially inaugurated on June 1, 1892, by Governor Lauro Carrillo. The palace had originally two stories and was built in neoclassic style from limestone. Its cost was put at $388,130.19 (pesos).

Limestone Sedimentary rocks made of calcium carbonate

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones.

On Saturday, June 21, 1941, the palace suffered extensive damage by fire which gutted the structure; however, it was totally restored and a third floor was added, and the building was re-inaugurated in 1947. The project of reconstruction was done under the charge of Engineers Enrique Miller, Manuel O'Reilly and Carlos Ochoa.

Carlos Ochoa Mexican footballer

Carlos Augusto Ochoa Mendoza is a former Mexican footballer striker who last played for Monarcas Morelia of the Liga MX.

In 1959, then-Governor Teofilo Borunda ordered the decoration of some of the first-floor inside walls with a series of murals illustrating the history and the economy of the state. Muralist Aarón Piña Mora was chosen to do the work and the first panel to be painted was the one illustrating the death of Miguel Hidalgo. When President Adolfo López Mateos visited the city in 1962 he recommended that the work continue. The entire first floor and part of the second floor are now covered with murals painted by one of Mexico's renowned muralists.

Architecture

The palace is designed and decorated in the neoclassic style, with the first floor of the Doric order, the second of the Ionic and the third a hybrid style. The Patio Central was decorated with a sculpture which represents the four races of humanity; however it eventually was moved to El Parque España, one of the parks in the city centre.

In 2004 under the administration of Governor Patricio Martinez the Government Palace was restored and such features as the State Coat of Arms was added and the sculpture of 'The Four Races' was installed once again in the Central Patio. A statue of Miguel Hidalgo was also erected.

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References

[1] [2]

  1. "Municipio de Chihuahua : Trabajamos Para TÃ". Web.archive.org. 2007-06-29. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
  2. "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México". Web.archive.org. 2007-05-16. Archived from the original on 2007-05-16. Retrieved 2017-01-28.