Hannah Humphrey (active 1745–1818 in London) was a leading London print seller of the 18th century, significant in particular for being the publisher of much of James Gillray's output.
James Gillray was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810. Many of his works are held at the National Portrait Gallery in London.
The sister of William Humphrey, Hannah Humphrey first started selling prints in 1788 from her brother's premises at St Martin's Lane.She was known as Mrs Humphreys although she remained a spinster for all her life. Although several woman print sellers ran successful businesses in 18th-century London—for example, Mary Darly, Susan Vivares, and Elizabeth Jackson—Humphreys was preeminent among them and her shop in St James was visited by a fashionable clientele and had a large stock of social and political caricature, including caricature portraits of leading society figures. Notable artists she published beside Gillray included Thomas Rowlandson and James Sayers.
William Humphrey (1740?–1810?) was an English engraver and printseller.
Mary and Matthew Darly were English printsellers and caricaturists during the 1770s. Mary Darly was a printseller, caricaturist, artist, engraver, writer, and teacher. She wrote, illustrated, and published the first book on caricature drawing, A Book of Caricaturas [sic], aimed at "young gentlemen and ladies." Mary was the wife of Matthew Darly, also called Matthias, a London printseller, furniture designer, and engraver. Mary was evidently the second wife of Matthew; his first was named Elizabeth Harold.
Elizabeth Jackson was a London print seller, significant in particular for being the publisher of nearly seventy prints by the young Thomas Rowlandson in the mid 1780s.
She moved premises a number of times:from 18 Old Bond Street (1778–83) to 51 New Bond Street (1783–89), to 18 Old Bond Street (1790–94), to 37 New Bond Street (1794–97) and finally settling in 27 St James's Street (1797–1817), depicted in a print Very Slippy-Weather. James Gillray lodged with her for much of his working life, and she looked after him after his lapse into insanity around 1810 until his death in 1815. In "Twopenny Whist", the character shown second from the left, an ageing lady with eyeglasses and a bonnet, is widely believed to be a depiction of Miss Humphrey.
St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's, central London. It runs from Piccadilly downhill to St James's Palace and Pall Mall. The main gatehouse of the Palace is at the southern end of the road, and in the 17th century Clarendon House faced down the street across Piccadilly on the site of most of Albemarle Street.
A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, and in the second sense they are usually called an animator.
An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist. They typically combine artistic skill, hyperbole and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills.
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.
Henry William Bunbury was an English caricaturist.
James Sayers was an English caricaturist. Many of his works are described in the Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum which has an extensive holdings of his works collected at the time of original publication by Sarah Sophia Banks.
Thomas Rowlandson was an English artist and caricaturist of the Georgian Era, noted for his political satire and social observation. A prolific artist, he also wrote satirical verse under the pen name of Peter Pindar. Like other contemporary pre-Victorian caricaturists like James Gillray, he too depicted characters in bawdy postures and he also produced erotica which was censured by the 1840s. His caricatures included those of people in power such as the Duchess of Devonshire, William Pitt and Napoleon Bonaparte.
Humphrey is both a masculine given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:
Lewis Augustus Lavenu was a musician, music seller and publisher.
Isaac Cruikshank (1764–1811), Scottish painter and caricaturist, was born in Edinburgh and spent most of his career in London. Cruikshank is known for his social and political satire. His sons Isaac Robert Cruikshank (1789–1856) and George Cruikshank (1792–1878) also became artists, and the latter in particular achieved fame as an illustrator and caricaturist.
Richard Newton was an English caricaturist, miniaturist and book illustrator.
The twelve volume Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum is the primary reference work for the study of British satirical prints of the 18th and 19th century. Most of the content of the catalogue is now available through the British Museum's on-line database.
M Dorothy George (1878–1971), née Gordon, was a British historian best known for compiling the last seven volumes of the Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, the primary reference work for the study of British satirical prints of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.. Educated at Cambridge University she graduated in 1899 with a first class degree in History. During the first World War she worked in British Intelligence for MI5; before returning to academia as a research scholar at the London School of Economics.
Professor Mark Hallett is an art historian specialising in the history of British art. He is currently Director of Studies at the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art.
Samuel William Fores, often credited as S. W. Fores was an English illustrator and publisher/printer based in Piccadilly, London. Fores, the son of a cloth merchant, began his career publishing his illustrations in 1783. He operated from premises at No 3 Piccadilly from 1785 and moved to 50 Piccadilly from 1795. He specialised in caricature, typically hand-coloured, singly issued prints. He became successful at marketing his works, which he often sold wholesale. Fores acquired a particularly large collection of caricatures, and at one time was said to have "the completest collection in the kingdom" in his Caricature Museum. He died in February 1838 at the age of 77 and was buried in his family vault at St. James Church in Jermyn Street.
William Holland was a leading London print seller and radical publisher who was fined £100 and imprisoned in 1793 for a year for seditious libel.
The Plumb-pudding in danger, or, State Epicures taking un Petit Souper, is an 1805 editorial cartoon by the English artist James Gillray. The popular print depicts caricatures of the British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger and the newly-crowned Emperor of France Napoleon, both wearing military uniforms, carving up a terrestrial globe into spheres of influence. It was published as a hand-coloured print and has been described by the National Portrait Gallery as "probably Gillray's most famous print" and by the British Library as "one of Gillray’s most famous satires dealing with the Napoleonic wars".
William Elmes, was an English caricaturist.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gillray, James". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 23–24.