Hook gauge evaporimeter

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A Hook gauge evaporimeter is a precision instrument used to measure changes in water levels due to evaporation. It is used to precisely measure the level of a free water surface as an evaporation pan or a tank. The main users are meteorologists and water engineers, especially in hot, arid countries where water conservation is of vital importance.

Evaporation Type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from its surface; surface phenomenon

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase. The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide with each other. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will escape and enter the surrounding air as a gas. When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.

Pan evaporation

Pan evaporation is a measurement that combines or integrates the effects of several climate elements: temperature, humidity, rain fall, drought dispersion, solar radiation, and wind. Evaporation is greatest on hot, windy, dry, sunny days; and is greatly reduced when clouds block the sun and when air is cool, calm, and humid. Pan evaporation measurements enable farmers and ranchers to understand how much water their crops will need.

Contents

Description

The device consists of a sharp hook suspended from a micrometer cylinder, with the body of the device having arms which rest on the rim of a still well inside the pan. The still well serves to isolate the device from any ripples that might be present in the sample being measured, while allowing the water level to equalize. The measurement is taken by turning the knob to lower the hook through the surface of the water until capillary action causes a small depression to form around the tip of the hook. The knob is then turned slowly until the depression "pops," with the measurement showing on the micrometer scale.

Micrometer device incorporating a calibrated screw

A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for accurate measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers. Micrometers are usually, but not always, in the form of calipers. The spindle is a very accurately machined screw and the object to be measured is placed between the spindle and the anvil. The spindle is moved by turning the ratchet knob or thimble until the object to be measured is lightly touched by both the spindle and the anvil.

Capillary action ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces

Capillary action is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the drawing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush, in a thin tube, in porous materials such as paper and plaster, in some non-porous materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber, or in a biological cell. It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension and adhesive forces between the liquid and container wall act to propel the liquid.

Use

Evaporation rate is determined by a sequence of measurements over a set time interval, usually every 24 hours.

See also

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