Hurdle

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Track and field hurdles Hurdles Bislett Games 2008.jpg
Track and field hurdles
A traditional wattle hurdle Wattle hurdle.JPG
A traditional wattle hurdle
A horse free-jumping a steeplechase-type hurdle Horse Running Without Jockey.jpg
A horse free-jumping a steeplechase-type hurdle
A mobile cattle pen made using steel hurdles; attached to a cattle crush in foreground British White cattle in mobile pen.jpg
A mobile cattle pen made using steel hurdles; attached to a cattle crush in foreground
Hurdles being used to cross the Mississippi River. Photograph with 2 captions, (1) "Improvement of the Mississippi River between the Illinois and Ohio Rivers" and (2)... - NARA - 282328.tif
Hurdles being used to cross the Mississippi River.
Ancient site of the "ford of hurdles", Dublin FordofHurdles.JPG
Ancient site of the "ford of hurdles", Dublin

A hurdle (UK English, limited US English) is a moveable section of light fence. In the United States, terms such as "panel", "pipe panel" or simply "fence section" are used to describe moveable sections of fencing intended for agricultural use and crowd control; "hurdle" refers primarily to fences used as jumping obstacles for steeplechasing with horses or human track and field competition.

Contents

Traditional hurdles were made from wattle, but modern designs for fencing are often made of metal. They are used for handling livestock, as decorative fencing, for steeplechasing and in the track and field event of hurdling and Shuttle Hurdle Relay.

Types

See also

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Barbed wire type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s)

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Agricultural fencing

In agriculture, fences are used to keep animals in or out of an area. They can be made from a wide variety of materials, depending on terrain, location and animals to be confined. Most agricultural fencing averages about 4 feet (1.2 m) high, and in some places, the height and construction of fences designed to hold livestock is mandated by law.

Hedge row of shrubs planted for protection

A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties. Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate larger trees, are known as hedgerows. Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops, as in bocage country. When clipped and maintained, hedges are also a simple form of topiary.

In horse racing in the United Kingdom, France and the Republic of Ireland, National Hunt racing requires horses to jump fences and ditches. National Hunt racing in the UK is informally known as "jumps" and is divided into two major distinct branches: hurdles and steeplechases. Alongside these there are "bumpers", which are National Hunt flat races. In a hurdles race, the horses jump over obstacles called hurdles; in a steeplechase the horses jump over a variety of obstacles that can include plain fences, water jump or an open ditch. In the UK the biggest National Hunt events of the year are generally considered to be the Grand National and the Cheltenham Gold Cup.

Kraal homestead

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Hedgelaying Cut and Lay

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Electric fence shock barrier to contain animals or people

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Stockman (Australia) person who looks after the livestock on a large property in Australia

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Picket fence domestic boundary of evenly spaced vertical boards attached to a horizontal rail

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Steeplechase (horse racing) Horse race form originally from Ireland, featuring jumps over fence and ditch obstacles

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Muster (livestock) process of gathering livestock; usually involve cattle, sheep or horses, but may also include goats, camels, buffalo or other animals

A muster (Au/NZ) or a roundup (US) is the process of gathering livestock. Musters usually involve cattle, sheep or horses, but may also include goats, camels, buffalo or other animals. Mustering may be conducted for a variety of reasons including routine livestock health checks and treatments, branding, shearing, lamb marking, sale, feeding and transport or droving to another location. Mustering is a long, difficult and sometimes dangerous job, especially on the vast Australian cattle stations of the Top End, 'The Falls' (gorge) country of the Great Dividing Range and the ranches of the western United States. The group of animals gathered in a muster is referred to as a "mob" in Australia and a "herd" in North America.

Pen (enclosure) enclosure for holding animals such as livestock or pets

A pen is an enclosure for holding animals such as livestock or pets that are unwanted inside the house. The term describes types of enclosures that may confine one or many animals. Construction and terminology vary depending on the region of the world, purpose, animal species to be confined, local materials used and tradition. Pen or penning as a verb refers to the act of confining animals in an enclosure.

Pest-exclusion fence

A pest-exclusion fence is a barrier that is built to exclude certain types of animal pests from an enclosure. This may be to protect plants in horticulture, preserve grassland for grazing animals, separate species carrying diseases from livestock, prevent troublesome species entering roadways, or to protect endemic species in nature reserves. These fences are not necessarily traditional wire barriers, but may also include barriers of sound, or smell.

Cattle chute narrow corridor built for cattle, sheep, pigs and other animals to travel through when being herded from one location to another that is nearby

A cattle chute or cattle race also called a run or alley, is a narrow corridor built for cattle, sheep, pigs and other animals to travel through when being herded from one location to another that is nearby. A conventional race consists of parallel panels or fences with a space between them just wide enough for one animal to pass through comfortably without being able to turn around, thus forming the animals into a queue that only allows them to go forward. It is used for routine husbandry activities such as drafting (sorting) or loading animals via ramp or loading chute into a vehicle; placing them one at a time in a cattle crush (variations also called a squeeze chute or standing stock) for examination, marking or veterinary treatment. They are also used at packing plants to move animals into a crush designed for slaughter.

Livestock crush strongly built livestock holding stall

A cattle crush, squeeze chute, standing stock, or simply stock is a strongly built stall or cage for holding cattle, horses, or other livestock safely while they are examined, marked, or given veterinary treatment. Cows may be made to suckle calves in a crush. For the safety of the animal and the people attending it, a close-fitting crush may be used to ensure the animal stands "stock still". The overall purpose of a crush is to hold an animal still to minimise the risk of injury to both the animal and the operator while work on the animal is performed.

Wattle and daub building technique using woven wooden supports packed with clay or mud

Wattle and daub is a composite building method used for making walls and buildings, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction method in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique.

Ranch Area of land used for raising grazing livestock

A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle and sheep most often applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called ranchers, cattlemen, or stockgrowers. Ranching is also a method used to raise less common livestock such as horses, elk, American bison or even ostrich, emu, and alpaca.

Open range

In the Western United States and Canada, open range is rangeland where cattle roam freely regardless of land ownership. Where there are "open range" laws, those wanting to keep animals off their property must erect a fence to keep animals out; this applies to public roads as well. Land in open range that is designated as part of a "herd district" reverses liabilities, requiring an animal's owner to fence it in or otherwise keep it on the person's own property. Most eastern states and jurisdictions in Canada require owners to fence in or herd their livestock.

Wattle (construction) Lightweight construction material made by weaving thin branches or slats between upright stakes to form a woven lattice

Wattle is a lightweight construction material made by weaving thin branches or slats between upright stakes to form a woven lattice. It has commonly been used to make fences and hurdles for enclosing ground or handling livestock. The wattle may be made as loose panels, slotted between timber framing to make infill panels, or it may be made in place to form the whole of a fence or wall. The technique goes back to Neolithic times.

References

  1. "Perkin Warbeck (1474-99)". channel4.com. 25 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  2. "River Restoration and Riverbank Conservation". parsons hurdles.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  3. "Hedge Laying and Hedgerow Management". parsonshurdles.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2016.