Instructional television

Last updated

Instructional television (ITV) is the use of television programs in the field of distance education. Educational television programs on instructional television may be less than one half hour long (generally 15 minutes in length) to help their integration into the classroom setting. These shows are often accompanied by teachers' guides that include material to help use this program in lessons. Instructional television programs have historically been shown during the daytime on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) stations in the United States. However, fewer public television stations devote their airtime to ITV today than they do in the past; these days, ITV programs are either seen on a digital subchannel of non-commercial educational public television station, or passed on to a local educational-access television channel run by a public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV organization.

Instructional television has been granted 20 microwave channels, administered by local educational institutions, through a service known in the US as ITFS, or Instructional Television Fixed Service. Instructional television may also be programmed on terrestrial television stations.

See also

Related Research Articles

Public-access television is traditionally a form of non-commercial mass media where the general public can create content television programming which is narrowcast through cable TV specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), under Chairman Dean Burch, based on pioneering work and advocacy of George Stoney, Red Burns, and Sidney Dean.

WGBH-TV PBS member station in Boston

WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2, branded on-air as GBH or GBH 2 since 2020, is the primary Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It is the flagship property of the WGBH Educational Foundation, which also owns Boston's secondary PBS member WGBX-TV and Springfield, Massachusetts PBS member WGBY-TV, Class A Biz TV affiliate WFXZ-CD and public radio stations WGBH and WCRB in the Boston area, and WCAI radio on Cape Cod. WGBH-TV also effectively, but unofficially serves as one of three flagship stations of PBS, along with WNET in New York City and WETA-TV in Washington, D.C.

KETC, virtual channel 9, branded on air as Nine PBS, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to St. Louis, Missouri, United States. The station is owned by St. Louis Regional Public Media. KETC's studios are located at the Dana Brown Communications Center on Olive Street in St. Louis' Grand Center neighborhood, and its transmitter is located in South St. Louis County. On cable, the station is available on Charter Spectrum channel 9 in both standard and high definition, and on AT&T U-verse channels 9 (SD) and 1009 (HD).

Public, educational, and government access television refers to three different cable television narrowcasting and specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and has since been mandated under the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which is codified under 47 USC § 531. PEG channels consist of:

  1. Public-access television – Generally quite free of editorial control, a form of non-commercial mass media where ordinary people can create television programming content which is transmitted through cable TV The channels are reserved free or at a minimal cost. The local origination television content revolves primarily around community interest, developed by individuals and nonprofit organizations.
  2. Educational-access television – Is distance education, a curated form of educational television, it is a synchronous learning educational technology unique to cable television systems and transmit instructional television, on Time Warner Cable channel 21, programming within city limits. Educational-access channels are generally reserved for educational purposes and are not for government-access or public-access television. Many schools have adapted educational access channels to enhance school curriculum. Some schools have done this better than others. Although the use of television in schools can be traced to those schools serving the bedroom communities of Manhattan in the 1960s, where executives and technicians of early television lived, the creation of PEG channels expanded the value of television as a school or community resource. Students produced and aired community stories in part to serve community stakeholders and in part to engage in active learning. These schools developed school-based community television as a storytelling laboratory.
  3. Government-access television – Cable channel capacity for the local government bodies and other legislative entities to access the cable systems to televise public affairs and other civic meetings. Government channels are generally reserved for government purposes and not for education-access or public-access television.
  4. Leased access – Cable television channels that are similar to commercial television where a fee is paid-for-services of reserved channel time.
  5. Municipal-access television – or "Community Access television" are ambiguous terms that usually refer to a channel space assigned on a Cable TV System intended to provide the content to all or some of the above listed access channels, and may contain other "access" programming such as "religious access" or the TV programming of a local institution, such as a college or a library. These channels are usually created as cost saving measures for the Cable TV company if their franchises or governing authorities allow it.
  6. Hybrid – Often, one channel will take on the role of another channel type on a regular basis. An example of this would be a college with a strong television production curriculum assumes the roles of educational access and public access. Beyond the typical curated educational access programming, a public access television element would be added where public access television producers would make shows using college owned equipment and college students as crew. This can be very beneficial to both entities, as the students earn credits for the work while contributing to the public access channel. However, difficulties can arise when the programming made for public access is of a type that does not reflect the values or tastes of the supporting college, and in such situations, colleges often make the decision to downplay or abandon the public access element of the channel, depending on how much funding is earned by assuming the public access television duties.
KLCS Television station in California, United States

KLCS, virtual channel 58, is a tertiary Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Los Angeles, California, United States. Owned by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), it is one of eight television stations in the U.S. that are operated by a local school system. KLCS' studios are located at the Downtown Magnets High School on West Temple Street in downtown Los Angeles, and its transmitter is located atop Mount Wilson.

KLVX PBS member station in Las Vegas

KLVX, virtual channel 10, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Las Vegas, Nevada, United States. The station is owned by the Clark County School District, and is the flagship member of the district's communications arm, the KLVX Communications Group. KLVX's studios are located at the Vegas PBS Educational Technology Campus in Paradise, and its transmitter is located atop Black Mountain, near Henderson.

WETA-TV PBS member station in Washington, D.C.

WETA-TV, virtual channel 26, is the primary Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to the American capital city of Washington, District of Columbia. Owned by the Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, it is a sister station to National Public Radio (NPR) member WETA. The two outlets share studios in nearby Arlington County, Virginia; WETA-TV's transmitter is located in the Tenleytown neighborhood in Northwest Washington. On cable, the station is available on channel 26 on most systems in the market. WETA-TV also effectively, but unofficially serves as one of three flagship stations of PBS, alongside WGBH-TV in Boston and WNET in New York City.

WNYE-TV Non-commercial independent TV station in New York City

WNYE-TV, virtual channel 25, is a non-commercial independent television station licensed to New York, New York, United States. The station is operated by NYC Media, a division of the Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment, and is sister to public radio station WNYE. The two stations share studios at the City University of New York's Graduate Center in midtown Manhattan; WNYE-TV's transmitter is located at the Condé Nast Building.

South Carolina Educational Television PBS member network in South Carolina

South Carolina Educational Television is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television stations serving the U.S. state of South Carolina. It is owned and operated by the South Carolina Educational Television Commission, an agency of the state government which holds the licenses for all of the PBS member stations licensed in the state. The broadcast signals of the eleven television stations cover almost all of the state, as well as parts of North Carolina and Georgia.

WSBE-TV PBS member station in Providence, Rhode Island

WSBE-TV, virtual channel 36, branded on-air as Rhode Island PBS, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Providence, Rhode Island, United States, serving the entire state as well as Bristol County, Massachusetts. The station is owned by the Rhode Island PBS Foundation, a non-profit organization. WSBE-TV's studios are located on Park Lane in Providence, and its transmitter is located on Pine Street in Rehoboth, Massachusetts.

The WXXI Public Broadcasting Council is a community non-profit organization of some 36,000 subscribing members in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area, and owns that city's major public television and Community radio stations, a newspaper, and other broadcasting services.

The Annenberg Foundation is a family foundation that provides funding and support to non-profit organizations in the United States and around the world. Some of the Foundation's core initiatives are the Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) project, which funds many educational television shows broadcast on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) public television in the United States as well as The Annenberg Community Beach House, The Annenberg Space for Photography, Metabolic Studio,, Wallis Annenberg PetSpace and the Wallis Annenberg Center for Performing Arts.

Utah Education Network

The Utah Education Network (UEN) is a broadband and digital broadcast network serving public education, higher education, applied technology campuses, libraries, and public charter schools throughout the state of Utah. The Network facilitates interactive video conferencing, provides instructional support services, and operates a public television station (KUEN) on behalf of the Utah State Board of Regents. UEN services benefit more than 60,000 faculty and staff, and more than 780,000 students from pre-schoolers in Head Start programs through grandparents in graduate school. UEN headquarters are in Salt Lake City at the Eccles Broadcast Center on the University of Utah campus.

Educational television or learning television is the use of television programs in the field of distance education. It may be in the form of individual television programs or dedicated specialty channels that is often associated with cable television in the United States as Public, educational, and government access (PEG) channel providers. There is More... There are also adult education programs for an older audience; many of these are instructional television or "telecourse" services that can be taken for college credit. Examples of these include Open University programs on BBC television in the UK.

The Agency for Instructional Technology (AIT) was a non-profit organization in the United States that produced, sold and distributed educational and instructional television programs, and other multimedia materials, to schools in the United States and Canada.

The Educational Broadband Service (EBS) was formerly known as the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS). ITFS was a band of twenty (20) microwave TV channels available to be licensed by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to local credit granting educational institutions. It was designed to serve as a means for educational institutions to deliver live or pre-recorded Instructional television to multiple sites within school districts and to higher education branch campuses. In recognition of the variety and quantity of video materials required to support instruction at numerous grade levels and in a range of subjects, licensees were typically granted a group of four channels. Its low capital and operating costs as compared to broadcast television, technical quality that compared favorably with broadcast television, and its multi-channel per licensees feature made ITFS an extremely cost effective vehicle for the delivery of Educational television materials.

Community television is a form of mass media in which a television station is owned, operated or programmed by a community group to provide television programs of local interest known as local programming.

William M. Brish American educator (1906-1999)

William M. Brish was a leader of closed circuit instructional television in public school elementary classrooms.

KET ED, known as the Education Channel, was a digital television programming service operated by PBS member network Kentucky Educational Television. The service provided programming from the Annenberg/CPB project, along with encore presentations of some PBS programming, and much of KET’s locally-produced in-house instructional television (ITV) productions.

The Kentucky Channel, also known by its Program and System Information Protocol short name and on-screen logo bug as KET KY, is a full-time 24/7 statewide digital television programming service originating from PBS member state-network Kentucky Educational Television. The channel features programming related to the U.S. state of Kentucky, as well as coverage of Kentucky General Assembly when it is in session.