The International Roadmap for Devices and Systems, or IRDS, is a set of predictions about likely developments in electronic devices and systems. The IRDS was established in 2016 and is the successor to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. These predictions are intended to allow coordination of efforts across academia, manufacturers, equipment suppliers, and national research laboratories. The IEEE specifies the goals of the roadmap as:
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is a set of documents produced by a group of semiconductor industry experts. These experts are representative of the sponsoring organisations which include the Semiconductor Industry Associations of the United States, Europe, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
The executive committee is drawn from regions with a major stake in developments in electronics: Europe, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the USA.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
International Focus Teams (IFTs) assess present status and future evolution of the ecosystem in their specific field of expertise and produce a 15 year roadmap. IFT reports includes evolution, key challenges, major roadblocks, and possible solutions. IFTs include:
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years. The observation is named after Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and CEO of Intel, whose 1965 paper described a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975, looking forward to the next decade, he revised the forecast to doubling every two years. The period is often quoted as 18 months because of a prediction by Intel executive David House.
Beyond CMOS refers to the possible future digital logic technologies beyond the CMOS scaling limits which limits device density and speeds due to heating effects.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier. There are many types of integrated circuit active pixel sensors including the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) APS used most commonly in cell phone cameras, web cameras, most digital pocket cameras since 2010, in most digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) and Mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras (MILCs). Such an image sensor is produced using CMOS technology, and has emerged as an alternative to charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors.
Technology computer-aided design is a branch of electronic design automation that models semiconductor fabrication and semiconductor device operation. The modeling of the fabrication is termed Process TCAD, while the modeling of the device operation is termed Device TCAD. Included are the modelling of process steps, and modelling of the behavior of the electrical devices based on fundamental physics, such as the doping profiles of the devices. TCAD may also include the creation of compact models, which try to capture the electrical behavior of such devices but do not generally derive them from the underlying physics.
Semiconductor device modeling creates models for the behavior of the electrical devices based on fundamental physics, such as the doping profiles of the devices. It may also include the creation of compact models, which try to capture the electrical behavior of such devices but do not generally derive them from the underlying physics. Normally it starts from the output of a semiconductor process simulation.
Sarnoff Corporation, with headquarters in West Windsor Township, New Jersey, though with a Princeton address, was a research and development company specializing in vision, video and semiconductor technology. It was named for David Sarnoff, the longtime leader of RCA and NBC.
Deep-sub-voltage nanoelectronics are integrated circuits (ICs) operating near theoretical limits of energy consumption per unit of processing. These devices are intended to address the needs of applications such as wireless sensor networks which have dramatically different requirements from traditional electronics. For example, for microprocessors where performance is primary metric of interest, but for some new devices, energy per instruction may be a more sensible metric.
In electronic engineering, a through-silicon via (TSV) or through-chip via is a vertical electrical connection (via) that passes completely through a silicon wafer or die. TSVs are high performance interconnect techniques used as an alternative to wire-bond and flip chips to create 3D packages and 3D integrated circuits. Compared to alternatives such as package-on-package, the interconnect and device density is substantially higher, and the length of the connections becomes shorter.
In microelectronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuit is an integrated circuit manufactured by stacking silicon wafers or dies and interconnecting them vertically using, for instance, through-silicon vias (TSVs) or Cu-Cu connections, so that they behave as a single device to achieve performance improvements at reduced power and smaller footprint than conventional two dimensional processes. 3D IC is just one of a host of 3D integration schemes that exploit the z-direction to achieve electrical performance benefits.
In integrated circuits, optical interconnects refers to any system of transmitting signals from one part of an integrated circuit to another using light. Optical interconnects have been the topic of study due to the high latency and power consumption incurred by conventional metal interconnects in transmitting electrical signals over long distances, such as in interconnects classed as global interconnects. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted interconnect scaling as a problem for the semiconductor industry.
RFIC is an abbreviation of Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit. Applications for RFICs include radar and communications, although the term RFIC might be applied to any electrical integrated circuit operating in a frequency range suitable for wireless transmission.
Electronic engineering is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems. The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards.
In semiconductor manufacturing, the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems defines the 5 nanometer (5 nm) node as the technology node following the 7 nm node.
Adrian (Mihai) Ionescu is a full Professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL).
He received the B.S./M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, Romania and the National Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble, France, in 1989 and 1997, respectively. He has held staff and/or visiting positions at LETI-CEA, Grenoble, France, LPCS-ENSERG, Grenoble, France and Stanford University, USA, in 1998 and 1999. He was a visiting professor with Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2012 and 2016.
The Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits are two closely connected international conferences on semiconductor technology and circuits, thereby offering an opportunity to interact and synergize on topics of joint interest, spanning the range from process technology to systems-on-chip. The Symposia take place once a year around the middle of June at locations alternating between Kyoto, Japan and Honolulu, USA. They bring together managers, engineers, and scientists from industry and academia around the world to discuss challenges in manufacturing and design of Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits. The Symposium on VLSI Technology started in 1981 while the Symposium on VLSI Circuits was established in 1987. Beside regular presentations of technical papers, the Symposia comprise short courses, panel sessions, and invited talks conducted by experts in the field from both Industry and Academia.
The IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) is an annual micro- and nanoelectronics conference held each December that serves as a forum for reporting technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and related device technologies, design, manufacturing, physics, modeling and circuit-device interaction.
Embedded intelligence is characterized as the ability of a product, process or service to reflect on its own operational performance, usage load, or environment to enhance the product performance and lifetime, to increase quality or to ensure customer satisfaction. This self-reflection, facilitated by information collected by embedded sensors, processed locally or communicated remotely for processing, must be considered from the earliest design stage.
IEEE Rebooting Computing is a global initiative launched by IEEE that proposes to rethink the concept of computing through a holistic look at all aspects of computing, from the device itself to the user interface. As part of its work, IEEE Rebooting Computing provides access to various resources like conferences and educational events, feature and scholarly articles, reports, and videos.