Miani (Pashtun tribe)

Last updated
Sarbani
Regions with significant populations
Afghanistan, Pakistan
Languages
Pashto, Urdu, Dari
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
other Pashtun tribes, other Iranian peoples

Miani (Pashto : Mianrhi) is a Pushtun tribe that mainly inhabit the Gomal plains of Pakistan in the Tank District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which was formerly North-West Frontier Province.

Contents

Historically Mianis have been migratory Powindah Tribes migrating between the Derajat Pakistan and Afghanistan though historical Gomal Pass. Many of them settled in the Gomal plains by 1850. There are also Miani people within the Dera Ismail Khan District of Pakistan who are related to the Mianis settled in the Gomal plains.

History

Mianis are believed to be a Shirani tribe that descended from the Sarbani. The Shiranis have three sub-tribes, namely Marani, Miani and Babar.[ citation needed ]

Maranis still refer to themselves as 'Shirani' as they are the main sub-tribe, but Babars and Mianis identify themselves as completely separate tribes.[ citation needed ]

A number of clans and sub clans of Miani tribe were Powindahs, who migrated between Afghanistan and Pakistan, afterwards large number of them settled in the Gomal Plains along with their other earlier settled tribesmen.[ citation needed ]

Gomal plains

The Mianis lived in the Gomal Plains of the Tank District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Pakistan - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Tank.svg
The Mianis lived in the Gomal Plains of the Tank District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Though initially a nomadic tribe, Mianis settled in the Gomal plains by or before 1850.[ citation needed ] The estimated population of nomadic Miani tribe was about 800 in the 1870s. They were a semi-independent group that lived along the Tank border, except for the hot season, when they moved into the hills. They were living among a small tribe, the Ghorezais (or Ghwarazai), of whom there were about 350 people. The larger tribe in the area was the Wazir, of whom there were a couple thousand people. [1]

An important technique that the British used to manage the frontier was to make certain tribes responsible for monitoring who had passes to travel on particular routes into the hills. They called this “pass responsibility”. [2] The Bhitannis first accepted pass responsibility on the Tank frontier. [3] Then, pass responsibility for the Girni, Murtuza and Manjhi posts was assigned to the Miani and Ghurezai tribes in 1876. [4] That year, they also accepted responsibility for monitoring passage into the Gomal Valley, as did a portion of the Ghwarazai that lived away from the other clan members of the Kakar tribe of Baluchistan. [3]

In 1879, when Tank was raided by the Mehsuds and an uprising took place, wherein the tribes believed that the British control over the area is weakening, Mianis along with Suleman Khels and Kharotis looted a number of villages around Tank. [5] The same fact has been narrated by Evelyn Berkelen Howell, that in January 1879, Tank was raided by the Mahsud. [6] Both Miani and Ghwarazai took part in the looting and plundering of Tank in the resulting disorder." [3]

Miani in Baluchistan

Though a portion of Miani Tribe live in Baluchistan especially in the Shirani District, sizable population of the Miani people live in Sharigh Tehsil of Harnai District in Balochistan. [7] Luni and Jaffar tribes residing in Baluchistan too are believed to be descendants of Miani tribe.[ citation needed ]

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Harifal

AYAZ KHAN HARIFAl The Harifal are a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Sherani District in the Balochistan province of Pakistan, and, to a lesser extent, the surrounding districts of Afghanistan. The tribe mostly populates the western slopes of Shinghar, a mountain in the Suleiman Range, though a considerable number reside in the Zhob District. There is also a scattered population in the Duki subdivision of Loralai District, Sanjavi subdivision of the Ziarat District, a small population in Quetta, and some in Zarkanai Daraban of Dera Ismail Khan district. The word Harifal is also transliterated as Airf Aal, Haripal, and Hurreepaul.

Gomal is an administrative unit, known as Union council, of Tank District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Union Council sarangzuna, parts of dabara union council namely Garwaki, Kot Hakim, Jatta Qila and union council Gomal combined form Gomal valley, commonly referred to as Gomal Ilaqa or Gomal Valley. Gomal valley share its borders with South Waziristan Agency in the west, FR Tank in the north, FR D.I.Khan In the south, D.I.Khan in the south east and Tank in the north East. There are two rivers that run through Gomal Valley namely Gomal river and Narsis River. Khand Wand, a small river, separates from Gomal River at Baikarah (sarangzuna) and falls into narsis river a couple of kilometers to the north of Jatta Qila. Gomal Valley comprises several village, including Garwaki, Gomal Bazar, Kot Nawaz, Kot Murtaza, Kot Azam, Kot Khadak and Kot Hakim. Villages of Raghza and Kot Manjhi reside on the southern side of Gomal river while Narsis reside on the northern side of Narsis River. The rest of the villages lie in the green land between the two rivers. Gomal Valley is known for its green and fertile fields. Wheat, Sugar cane, Rice are grown abundantly. Grapes, oranges, apple, and pomegranate are also grown. Gomal valley has a high density of trees.

Sarangzuna is an administrative unit, known as Union council, of Tank District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Union Council sarangzuna, parts of dabara union council namely Garwaki, Kot Hakim, Jatta Qila and union council Gomal combined form Gomal valley, commonly referred to as Gomal Ilaqa or Gomal Valley. Gomal valley share its borders with South Waziristan Agency in the west, FR Tank in the north, FR D.I.Khan In the south, D.I.Khan in the south east and Tank in the north East. There are two rivers that run through Gomal Valley namely Gomal river and Narsis River. Khand Wand, a small river, separates from Gomal River at Baikarah (sarangzuna) and falls into narsis river a couple of kilometers to the north of Jatta Qila. Gomal Valley comprises several villages, namely Garwaki, Gomal Bazar, Kot Nawaz, Kot Murtaza, Kot Azam,Kot khadak and Kot hakim etc. Villages of Raghza and Kot Manjhi reside on the southern side of Gomal river while Narsis reside on the northern side of Narsis River. The rest of the villages lie in the green land between the two rivers. Gomal Valley is known for its green and fertile fields. Wheat, Sugar cane, Rice are grown abundantly. Grapes, oranges, apple, and pomegranate are also grown. Gomal valley has a high density of trees.

References

  1. Beattie, Hugh (December 16, 2013). Imperial Frontier: Tribe and State in Waziristan. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN   978-1-136-83957-3.
  2. Beattie, Hugh (December 16, 2013). Imperial Frontier: Tribe and State in Waziristan. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN   978-1-136-83957-3.
  3. 1 2 3 Howell, Evelyn Berkeley (1979). A Monograph on Government's Relations with the Mahsud Tribe. Oxford University Press. p. 119.
  4. Hugh, Beattie (2013). Imperial Frontier: Tribe and State in Waziristan. 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue New York, NY10017: Routledge. p. 115. ISBN   0-7007-1309-3.CS1 maint: location (link)
  5. Imperial Frontier: Tribe and State in Waziristan By Hugh Beattie
  6. Beattie, Hugh (December 16, 2013). Imperial Frontier: Tribe and State in Waziristan. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-136-83957-3.
  7. District Development Profile, Planning and Development Department, Government of Balochistan in Collaboration with UNICEF, July 18, 2011