Murphy Roths large (MRL/MpJ) is a strain of laboratory mouse developed in 1999 at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, PA.Originally bred for autoimmune disease research, it was discovered to have remarkable tissue regeneration abilities.
The MRL/MpJ mouse strain was selectively bred by scientists to have an autoimmune genetic disorder (retained through inbreeding) to be used as a model for autoimmune disease research.After making puncture wounds in their ears, these mice were observed to completely regenerate from these wounds without development of scar tissue. In further research, this mouse strain has been observed to have the ability to also regenerate cardiac tissue, displays a resistance to muscle dystrophy, and is resistant to experiencing hyperglycemia from a diet high in fats.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an "autoimmune disease". Prominent examples include celiac disease, post-infectious IBS, diabetes mellitus type 1, Henloch Scholein Pupura (HSP) sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren syndrome, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Addison's disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Autoimmune diseases are very often treated with steroids.
Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply.
Inbred strains are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. However, for some experiments, genetic diversity in the test population may be desired. Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible.
The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research. Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in genetics, psychology, medicine and other scientific disciplines. Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues.
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but reproduce by the method of budding.
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is a rare, autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy mainly described in Japan but also identified in Turkish and Ashkenazi Jewish patients; fifteen cases were first described on 1960 by Dr. Yukio Fukuyama.
Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linkedsyndrome is a rare disease linked to the dysfunction of the transcription factor FOXP3, widely considered to be the master regulator of the regulatory T cell lineage. It leads to the dysfunction of regulatory T-cells and the subsequent autoimmunity. The disorder is one of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes and manifests with autoimmune enteropathy, psoriasiform or eczematous dermatitis, nail dystrophy, autoimmune endocrinopathies, and autoimmune skin conditions such as alopecia universalis and bullous pemphigoid. Management for IPEX has seen limited success in treating the syndrome by bone marrow transplantation.
Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice, like the Biobreeding rat, are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes develops in NOD mice as a result of insulitis, a leukocytic infiltrate of the pancreatic islets. Onset of diabetes is associated with a moderate glycosuria and a non-fasting hyperglycemia. It is recommended to monitor for development of glycosuria from 10 weeks of age; this can be carried out using urine glucose dipsticks. NOD mice will develop spontaneous diabetes when left in a sterile environment. The incidence of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse is 60–80% in females and 20–30% in males. Onset of diabetes also varies between males and females: commonly, onset is delayed in males by several weeks.
The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIRE gene. AIRE is a transcription factor expressed in the medulla of the thymus. It is part of the mechanism which eliminates self-reactive T cells that would cause autoimmune disease. It exposes T cells to normal, healthy proteins from all parts of the body, and T cells that react to those proteins are destroyed.
Ellen Heber-Katz is an American immunologist/regeneration biologist who is professor at Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR). She is an immunologist who investigates mammalian regeneration, having discovered the ability of the MRL mouse strain to regenerate wounds without scarring and to fully restore damaged tissues. Her work on regeneration has been extended into National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded studies of novel aspects of breast cancer causation. Her research interests include immunology, regenerative medicine and cancer.
Originally identified as Kirsten ras associated gene (krag), Sarcospan (SSPN) (is a 25-kDa transmembrane protein located in the dystrophin-associated protein complex of skeletal muscle cells, where it is most abundant. It contains four transmembrane spanning helices with both N- and C-terminal domains located intracellularly. Loss of SSPN expression occurs in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin is required for proper localization of SSPN. SSPN is also an essential regulator of Akt signaling pathways. Without SSPN, Akt signaling pathways will be hindered and muscle regeneration will not occur.
Certain sites of the human body have immune privilege, meaning they are able to tolerate the introduction of antigens without eliciting an inflammatory immune response. Tissue grafts are normally recognised as foreign antigen by the body and attacked by the immune system. However, in immune privileged sites, tissue grafts can survive for extended periods of time without rejection occurring. Immunologically privileged sites include:
A NOG (NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull) mouse is a new generation of severely immunodeficient mouse, developed by Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) in 2000. The NOG mouse accepts heterologous cells much more easily compared with any other type of immunodeficient rodent models, such as, nude mouse and NOD/scid mouse. Thus, the mouse can be the best model as a highly efficient recipient of human cells to engraft, proliferate and differentiate. This unique feature offers a great opportunity for enhancing therapy researches of cancer, leukemia, visceral diseases, AIDS, and other human diseases. It also provides applications for cancer, infection, regeneration, and hematology researches.
A humanized mouse is a mouse carrying functioning human genes, cells, tissues, and/or organs. Humanized mice are commonly used as small animal models in biological and medical research for human therapeutics. Immunodeficient mice are often used as recipients for human cells or tissues, because they can relatively easily accept heterologous cells due to lack of host immunity. Traditionally, the nude mouse and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse have been used for this purpose, but recently the NCG mouse, NOG mouse and the NSG mouse have been shown to engraft human cells and tissues more efficiently than other models. Two mouse strains, called MITRG and MISTRG, were described in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. Such humanized mouse models may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.
An earmark is a cut or mark in the ear of livestock animals such as cattle, deer, pigs, goats, camels or sheep, made to show ownership, year of birth or sex.
Anti-nRNP is a type of antibody.
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells, derived from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). In response to pathogenic tissue damage, ILCs contribute to immunity via the secretion of signalling molecules, and the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune cells.
Regulatory B cells represent a small population of B cells which participates in immunomodulations and in suppression of immune responses. These cells regulate the immune system by different mechanisms. The main mechanism is a production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). The regulatory effects of Bregs were described in various models of inflammation, autoimmune diseases, transplantation reactions and in anti-tumor immunity.
Kanneboyina Nagaraju is a medical scientist and immunologist who is credited with creating the MHC Class I transgenic mouse model for autoimmune myositis. Nagaraju is also credited with identifying novel glucocorticoid analogs with reduced side effect profiles in collaboration with Eric Hoffman and John McCall. He led international efforts to improve rigor and reproducibility of preclinical drug trials and phenotyping in neuromuscular disease models.
Promiscuous gene expression (PGE), formerly referred to as ectopic expression, is a process specific to the thymus that plays a pivotal role in the establishment of central tolerance. This phenomenon enables generation of self-antigens, so called tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), which are in the body expressed only by one or few specific tissues. These antigens are represented for example by insulin from the pancreas or defensins from the gastrointestinal tract. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the thymus, namely medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells are capable to present peptides derived from TRAs to developing T cells and hereby test, whether their T cell receptors (TCRs) engage self entities and therefore their occurrence in the body can potentially lead to the development of autoimmune disease. In that case, thymic APCs either induce apoptosis in these autoreactive T cells or they deviate them to become T regulatory cells, which suppress self-reactive T cells in the body that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Thus, PGE is crucial for tissues protection against autoimmunity.
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