The natural prolongation principle or principle of natural prolongation is a legal concept introduced in maritime claims submitted to the United Nations.
An ocean is a body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word "ocean" is often used interchangeably with "sea" in American English. Strictly speaking, a sea is a body of water partly or fully enclosed by land, though "the sea" refers also to the oceans.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
The phrase denotes a concept of political geography and international law that a nation's maritime boundary should reflect the 'natural prolongation' of where its land territory reaches the coast.
Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally, for the purposes of analysis, political geography adopts a three-scale structure with the study of the state at the centre, the study of international relations above it, and the study of localities below it. The primary concerns of the subdiscipline can be summarized as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory.
International law, also known as public international law or law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally regarded and accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states to follow across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy, human rights, commerce, and environmental preservation. International law thus provides a mean for states to practice more stable, consistent, and organized international relations.
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources, encompassing maritime features, limits and zones. Generally, a maritime boundary is delineated at a particular distance from a jurisdiction's coastline. Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime borders usually serve to identify the edge of international waters.
Oceanographic descriptions of the land mass under coastal waters became conflated and confused with criteria that are deemed relevant in border delimitation.The concept was developed in the process of settling disputes if the borders of adjacent nations were located on a contiguous continental shelf.
Conflation is the merging of two or more sets of information, texts, ideas, opinions, etc., into one, often in error.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called boundary delimitation.
An unresolved issue is whether a natural prolongation defined scientifically, without reference to equitable principles, is to be construed as a "natural prolongation" for the purpose of maritime border delimitation or maritime boundary disputes.
The phrase natural prolongation was established as a concept in the North Sea Continental Casesin 1969.
The relevance and importance of natural prolongation as a factor in delimitation disputes and agreements has declined during the period in which international acceptance of UNCLOS III has expanded.
The Malta/Libya Casein 1985 is marked as the eventual demise of the natural prolongation principle being used in delimiting between adjoining national maritime boundaries.
The Strait of Juan de Fuca is a large body of water about 154 kilometres (96 mi) long that is the Salish Sea's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The international boundary between Canada and the United States runs down the center of the Strait.
Serranilla Bank is a partially submerged reef, with small uninhabited islets, in the western Caribbean Sea. It is situated about 350 kilometres (220 mi) northeast of Punta Gorda, Nicaragua, and roughly 280 kilometres (170 mi) southwest of Jamaica. The closest neighbouring land feature is Bajo Nuevo Bank, located 110 kilometres (68 mi) to the east.
Romanian-Ukrainian relations are foreign relations between Romania and Ukraine. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in 1992. Romania has an embassy in Kiev and two Consulates-General. Ukraine has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate in Suceava.
The Australia–Indonesia border is a maritime boundary running west from the two countries' tripoint maritime boundary with Papua New Guinea in the western entrance to the Torres Straits through the Arafura Sea and Timor Sea and terminating in the Indian Ocean. The boundary is, however, broken by the "Timor Gap", where Australian and East Timorese territorial waters meet and where the two countries have overlapping claims to the seabed.
The Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea  ICJ 3 was a decision of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). On September 16, 2004, Romania brought its case to the court after unsuccessful bilateral negotiations. On February 3, 2009, the court handed down its verdict, establishing a maritime boundary including the continental shelf and exclusive economic zones for Romania and Ukraine.
Boundary delimitation is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities. In the context of elections, it can be called redistribution and is used to prevent unbalance of population across districts. In the United States, it is called redistricting. Unbalanced or discriminatory delimitation is called "gerrymandering." Though there are no internationally agreed processes that guarantee fair delimitation, several organizations, such as the Commonwealth Secretariat, the European Union and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems have proposed guidelines for effective delimitation.
The Cape Verde – Mauritania Maritime Delimitation Treaty is a treaty between Cape Verde and Mauritania in which the two states agreed to the delimitation of their maritime boundary.
The Cape Verde – Senegal Maritime Delimitation Treaty is a treaty between Cape Verde and Senegal in which the two states agreed to the delimitation of their maritime boundary.
The Netherlands–Venezuela Boundary Treaty is a 1978 treaty between territory of the Netherlands and Venezuela which delimits the maritime boundary between territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Venezuelan territory. When the treaty was concluded in 1978, the treaty set out the boundary between what was known as the Netherlands Antilles and Venezuela. Today, it establishes the boundary between Aruba and Venezuela, between Curaçao and Venezuela, and between the BES islands and Venezuela.
The France–Seychelles Maritime Boundary Agreement is a 2001 treaty between France and Seychelles which delimits the maritime boundary between Seychelles and the uninhabited Glorioso Islands which are claimed by France.
The Italy–Tunisia Delimitation Agreement is a 1971 treaty between Italy and Tunisia in which the two countries agreed to delimit a maritime boundary between them in the continental shelf. The text of the treaty sets out a complex boundary in the Strait of Sicily representing an equidistant line between Sicily and Tunisia, with the exception of Pantelleria and the Pelagie Islands treated as Italian exclaves in the Tunisian side. Nevertheless, the islands in question were each given a 13-nautical-mile arc of territorial sea, intersecting Italian waters and forming a continuum with them.
Daniel J. Dzurek is an American academic geographer, author and government official. He was formerly the Chief of the Spatial, Environmental and Boundary Analysis Division of the United States Department of State.
The equidistance principle or principle of equidistance, in maritime boundary claims, is a legal concept that a nation's maritime boundaries should conform to a median line that is equidistant from the shores of neighboring nations. The concept was developed in the process of settling disputes in which the borders of adjacent nations were located on a contiguous continental shelf:
An equidistance line is one for which every point on the line is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines being used. The equidistance principle is a methodology that has been endorsed by the UNCLOS treaty, but predates the treaty and has been used by the Supreme Court of the United States, states, and nations to equitably establish boundaries.
There are disputes between China, Japan, and South Korea over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the East China Sea.
Several states have claimed interests over the sea bed adjoining Rockall. Denmark, Iceland, Ireland and the United Kingdom have all made submissions to the commission set up under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
This article is a list of events in the year 2003 in Mauritania.
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea and the Sea of Japan. The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders. The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.