Oldenburg

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Oldenburg
Luftaufnahmen Nordseekueste 2013 05 by-RaBoe tele 46.jpg
City centre of Oldenburg including St Lamberti Church
Location of Oldenburg
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Oldenburg
Lower Saxony location map.svg
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Oldenburg
Coordinates: 53°08′38″N8°12′50″E / 53.14389°N 8.21389°E / 53.14389; 8.21389 Coordinates: 53°08′38″N8°12′50″E / 53.14389°N 8.21389°E / 53.14389; 8.21389
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Urban district
Subdivisions33 boroughs, separated into nine census tracts
Government
   Lord Mayor Jürgen Krogmann (since 2014) (SPD)
Area
  Total102.96 km2 (39.75 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total168,210
  Density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
26001–26135
Dialling codes 0441
Vehicle registration OL
Website www.oldenburg.de

Oldenburg (German pronunciation: [ˈɔldn̩bʊʁk] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. The city is officially named Oldenburg (Oldb) (Oldenburg in Oldenburg) to distinguish from Oldenburg in Holstein.

Contents

During the French annexation (1811–1813) in the wake of the Napoleonic war against Britain, it was also known as Le Vieux-Bourg in French. The city is situated at the Rivers Hunte and Haaren, in the northwestern region between the cities of Bremen in the east and Groningen (Netherlands) in the west. It has a population of 170,000 (November 2019). [2] Oldenburg is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.37 million people.

The city is the place of origin of the House of Oldenburg. Before the end of the German Empire (1918), it was the administrative centre and residence of the monarchs of Oldenburg.

History

Archaeological finds point to a settlement dating back to the 8th century. The first documentary evidence, in 1108, referenced Aldenburg in connection with Elimar I (also known as Egilmar I) who is now commonly seen as the first count of Oldenburg. The town gained importance due to its location at a ford of the navigable Hunte river. Oldenburg became the capital of the County of Oldenburg (later a Duchy (1774- 1810), Grand Duchy (1815-1918), and Free State (1918-1946)), a small state in the shadow of the much more powerful Hanseatic city of Bremen. [3]

In the 17th century Oldenburg was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and its population and power grew considerably. In 1667, the town was struck by a disastrous plague epidemic and, shortly after, a fire destroyed Oldenburg. The Danish kings, who were also counts of Oldenburg at the time, had little interest in the condition of the town and it lost most of its former importance. In 1773, Danish rule ended. Only then were the destroyed buildings in the city rebuilt in a neoclassicist style. [3] ( German-speakers usually call the "neoclassicist style" of that period klassizistisch, while neoklassizistisch specifically refers to the classicist style of the early 20th century.)

Schloss Oldenburg Schloss Oldenburg.jpg
Schloss Oldenburg

After the German government announced the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II (9 November 1918) following the exhaustion and defeat of the German Empire in World War I, monarchic rule ended in Oldenburg as well with the abdication of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II of Oldenburg (Friedrich August II von Oldenburg) on 11 November 1918. The Grand Duchy now became the Free State of Oldenburg (German : Freistaat Oldenburg), with the city remaining the capital.

In the 1928 city elections, the Nazi Party received 9.8% of the vote, enough for a seat on the Oldenburg city council. In the September 1930 Oldenburg state elections, the Nazi Party's share of the vote rose to 27.3%, and on May 29, 1932, the Nazi Party received 48.4% in the state election, enough to put the Nazi party in charge of forming a state government and, significantly, making Oldenburg the first state in the country to put the Nazis in power based on electoral turnout. By that autumn, a campaign of Aryanization began, forcing the sale of formerly Jewish-owned properties at steep discounts. [4]

In 1945, after World War II, the State of Oldenburg became part of the British zone of occupation. The British military government of the Oldenburg region resided in the city. Several displaced-persons camps were set up in the city that had suffered only 1.4% destruction during the bombing campaigns of World War II. [5] About 42,000 refugees migrated into Oldenburg, which raised the number of residents to over 100,000. In 1946 the Free State of Oldenburg was dissolved and the area became the 'Administrative District' of Oldenburg (Verwaltungsbezirk Oldenburg) within the newly-formed federal German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The city was now capital of the district. In 1978 the district was dissolved and succeeded by the newly formed Weser-Ems administrative region ( Regierungsbezirk Weser-Ems), again with the city as administrative capital. The state of Lower Saxony dissolved all of the Regierungsbezirke by the end of 2004 in the course of administrative reforms.

Demography

Historical population of Oldenburg
Year150216671702176918161828183718551871
Population~ 2,300~ 4,300~ 5,0006,9596,2786,8009,28011,37013,928
RankNationalityPopulation (31.12.2017)
1Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 2,980
2Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1,530
3Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1,285
4Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 650

City government

Local elections take place every five years. The city council (Stadtrat) has 50 seats. The lord mayor (Oberbürgermeister) is elected directly by the citizens.

Political parties in Oldenburg (Oldb) and their percentages of votes in past city council elections [6]
Election
year
SPD Bündnis ’90/
Die Grünen
CDU Die Linke Freie Wähler/
FW-BFO
FDP Piraten
Partei
NPD LKR AFD
200140.113.630.53.92.88.2
200632.721.226.07.25.46.3
201134.027.320.66.13.13.02.81.1
201632.6819.1322.219.881.534.841.170.621.194.76
Resulting distribution of seats in the city council
Election
year
SPDGrüneCDULinkeFWFDPPiratenWFONPDLKRAFDTotal
seats
20012171521450
200616111343350
201117141032111150
20161610115121101250

Economy and infrastructure

Transport

Oldenburg Railway Station Bahnsteig(halle) des Oldenburger Hauptbahnhofs.jpg
Oldenburg Railway Station
Oldenburg Harbour Hafen Oldenburg mit Silos.jpg
Oldenburg Harbour

Agriculture

The city is surrounded by large agricultural areas, about 80% of which is grassland. There are farms near and even a few within city limits. Predominant agricultural activities of the region are the cultivation of livestock, especially dairy cows and other grazing animals, crops such as grains for food and animal feed, as well as asparagus, corn, and kale.

Industry

Sea salt production in the Oldenburg region has been used since the 15th century to supply the huge salt demand in the Baltic region. Peat extraction in the area continued for many centuries until it was replaced by coal mines.

Cultural life

"Hundehutten" (dog houses) typical architecture in Oldenburg Oldenburger Hundehutten-20130723.jpg
"Hundehütten" (dog houses) typical architecture in Oldenburg

Recurring cultural events

Points of interest

Lutheran community

Oldenburg is the seat of administration and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg, whose preaching venue is the St Lamberti Church.

Jewish community

Nathan Marcus Adler, chief Rabbi of the Oldenburg Jewish community in the 19th century Young Nathan Marcus Adler.JPG
Nathan Marcus Adler, chief Rabbi of the Oldenburg Jewish community in the 19th century

The history of the Jewish community of Oldenburg dates back to the 14th century. [7] Towards and during the 19th century, the Jews in Oldenburg were always around 1% of the total population, and by that time had acquired their own synagogue, cemetery and school. Most of them were merchants and businessmen. On 1938 Kristallnacht, the town men were led to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, among them Leo Trepp, the community Rabbi who survived and later became an honorary citizen of Oldenburg and honored by a street named after him. [8] Since 1981 an annual commemoration walk (Erinnerungsgang) has been held by Oldenburg citizens in memory of the deportation of the Oldenburg Jews on November 10, 1938. [9] Those who remained after 1938 emigrated to Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Holland or Mandatory Palestine.

After World War II, a group of survivors returned to the city and maintained a small community until it was dissolved during the 1970s. Nevertheless, due to Jewish emigration from the former USSR to Germany in the 1990s, a community of about 340 people is now maintaining its own synagogue, cemetery and other facilities. The old Jewish cemetery, which is no longer active after the opening of a new one, was desecrated twice in 2011 and 2013. [10]

Media

Print

Radio and television

Online

Education

Tertiary education

There are two public universities in Oldenburg:

Privately managed institutions of higher education:

Other:

Primary and secondary education

Sports

Oldenburg hosted the 2007 Fistball World Championship.

It has two football teams, VfB Oldenburg and VfL Oldenburg, who also have a handball section of the same name.

Moreover, Oldenburg is home to the basketball team EWE Baskets Oldenburg.

International relations

Oldenburg is twin towns with following cities and districts: [14]

Notable natives of Oldenburg

Isaac Friedlander IsaacFriedlanderPortrait-1878.png
Isaac Friedlander
Helene Lange 1899 Helene Lange vor 1899.jpg
Helene Lange 1899
Karl Jaspers Karl Jaspers Buste.JPG
Karl Jaspers

Wilfred Hans-Günther Wlochal (Born 1927-2018), Author

Notable personalities associated with Oldenburg

See in particular the Counts, Dukes and Grand Dukes of Oldenburg for the rulers who were not born in Oldenburg.

Princess Cecilia of Sweden in 1835 Peter Cecilia of Sweden.jpg
Princess Cecilia of Sweden in 1835

See also

Related Research Articles

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Weser-Ems Regierungsbezirk in Lower Saxony, Germany

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The district of Oldenburg is a district in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Diepholz, Vechta, Cloppenburg and Ammerland, the city of Oldenburg, the district of Wesermarsch and the city of Delmenhorst.

Cloppenburg Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

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Hunte river in Germany

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Elsfleth Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

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Gauliga Niedersachsen

The Gauliga Niedersachsen was the highest football league in the Prussian Province of Hanover and the German states of Bremen, Brunswick, Schaumburg-Lippe and Oldenburg from 1933 to 1945. Shortly after the formation of the league, the Nazis reorganised the administrative regions in Germany, and the GaueSüdhannover-Braunschweig, Ost-Hannover and Weser-Ems de facto replaced the Prussian province and the German states in the region of Lower Saxony (German:Niedersachsen), although de jure the old states continued to exist.

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Oldenburg–Bremen railway railway line

The Bremen–Oldenburg railway is a 44.4 km-long mainline railway that connects Oldenburg in the northwest of the German states of Lower Saxony and Bremen.

NordWestBahn transport company

The NordWestBahn GmbH is a private railway company providing regional train services on several routes in northern and western Germany. It is a joint venture of Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG, Verkehr und Wasser GmbH in Oldenburg and Transdev Germany, Berlin. The head office of the company is in Osnabrück. NWB claims to be Germany's largest regional railway company.

Northwest Metropolitan Region metropolitan region in Germany

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Carl Röver SS officer

Carl Georg Röver was a German Nazi Party official. His main posts were as Gauleiter of Weser-Ems and Reichsstatthalter of Oldenburg/Bremen.

The so-called Kwami-Affair has been caused by Carl Röver, Nazi-Gauleiter of Weser-Ems, and the Free State of Oldenburg, when he attempted to prevent a sermon held by the Ghanaian Pastor Robert Kwami September 20, 1932, in the St. Lamberti Church in the city of Oldenburg.

Wilhelmshaven–Oldenburg railway railway line

The Wilhelmshaven–Oldenburg railway is a predominantly double-track, non-electrified main line in the northwest in the German state of Lower Saxony. It runs to the south from the port city of Wilhelmshaven to Oldenburg. The line is being upgraded in connection with the construction of JadeWeserPort so that it will be continuously duplicated and electrified.

The Jade University of Applied Sciences is a university in Lower Saxony, Germany. It was founded in 2009 as a successor to the Fachhochschule Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven. The university has campuses in Wilhelmshaven, Oldenburg and Elsfleth and around 6,700 students.

SSV Jeddeloh

Spiel- und Sportverein Jeddeloh II e.V., commonly known as SSV Jeddeloh or SSV Jeddeloh II, is a German association football club based in the community of Jeddeloh II in the municipality of Edewecht, located in the district of Ammerland, Lower Saxony.

References

  1. Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen, LSN-Online Regionaldatenbank, Tabelle 12411: Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand 31. Dezember 2018.
  2. https://www.oldenburg.de/startseite/politik/verwaltung-finanzen/statistik/einwohnerzahl-steigt.html
  3. 1 2 PD-icon.svg  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Anonymous (1911). "Oldenburg". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 72.
  4. Goldsmith, Martin (2014). Alex's Wake: A Voyage of Betrayal and a Journey of Remembrance. Da Capo Press. pp. 44–46. ISBN   978-0306823220.
  5. Ulrich Schneider: Niedersachsen 1945, p. 95. Hannover 1985
  6. Source: Official results of elections published on the official website of the city of Oldenburg.
  7. "OLDENBURG - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  8. Oldenburg, Stadt. "1990: Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Leo Trepp - Stadt Oldenburg". www.oldenburg.de. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  9. "Erinnerungsgang -". Erinnerungsgang. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "Statistics published on the CvO University's web site, retrieved in 2014". uni-oldenburg.de. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  12. "VI. School of Medicine and Health Sciences". uni-oldenburg.de. 25 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  13. "Statistics published on the Jade-Hochschule website, retrieved in January 2012". jade-hs.de. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  14. Oldenburg, Stadt. "Internationales - Stadt Oldenburg". oldenburg.de. Retrieved 29 April 2018.