|Most titles||Vancouver Millionaires/Maroons|
The Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) was a professional men's ice hockey league in western Canada and the western United States, which operated from 1911 to 1924 when it then merged with the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL). The PCHA was considered to be a major league of ice hockey and was important in the development of the sport of professional ice hockey through its innovations.
The league was started by the Patrick family, professional hockey players from Montreal, building new arenas in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. After a few years of play, the league was accepted by the Stanley Cup trustees as being of a high enough standard that teams from its league were accepted for Stanley Cup challenges. Starting in 1915, the league entered into an agreement where the Stanley Cup was to be contested between the National Hockey Association and the PCHA after the regular seasons were finished. The league struggled to make money, and various teams moved into different cities in an attempt to be successful financially. Eventually, the league, to survive, merged with the WCHL in 1924.
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After playing for the Renfrew Millionaires in 1910, the brothers Frank and Lester Patrick moved west to Nelson, British Columbia to work in their father Joe's lumbering business. After Joe decided to sell the business in January 1911, the Patricks decided then to form a new professional ice hockey league, risking the family fortune. The decision was made to put new rinks in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, locations which necessitated the use of artificial ice, as the locations' climate prevented natural ice. Three teams: the New Westminster Royals, the Victoria Senators, and the Vancouver Millionaires would be formed. The Patricks moved quickly, buying property for the arenas in February. Ground was broken for the arenas in April and the arenas were completed in December. Victoria's arena seated 4,000, and cost $110,000 and the flagship arena in Vancouver had 10,500 seats and cost $210,000 to build.
Once it became clear that the arenas would be built in time, the Patricks raided the National Hockey Association (NHA) for players, although with only three teams and no substitutes, the entire league only had 23 players under contract (including two reserves in case of injury). All players were paid by the league, unlike the NHA with its competing teams. The PCHA distributed players amongst the teams. Newsy Lalonde of the Canadiens would be the most notable player to move west, to play for Vancouver. The league was formally organized on December 7, 1911 to be run by Frank and Lester, who would also play for and manage the Vancouver and Victoria teams.The Victoria arena would open to the public on Christmas Day 1911, and the first game of the PCHA was played on January 3, 1912, only a year after the Patricks decided to form the new league. The first league championship for the Patterson Cup trophy was won by the New Westminster Royals.
The league did not challenge for the Stanley Cup the first year. Despite the raiding of the NHA, a March 1912 west coast tour of the NHA's all-stars was arranged, billed as a sort of "World Series" of hockey. The NHA all-stars included Cyclone Taylor, a marquee name in the East, who had injured his hand refereeing a benefit game for Bruce Ridpath before coming out west and didn't play the first two games. After the PCHA all-stars won the first two games 10–4 and 5–1, leaving the series outcome in no doubt, the NHA manager Art Ross decided to let Taylor play at the Patrick's request. Taylor would put on an outstanding display of ice hockey prowess for the British Columbia fans and receive a two-minute ovation. Taylor, already rumoured to have signed with Vancouver, would later turn down a contract offer of the Ottawa Hockey Club of the NHA to join the Millionaires in December 1912 for a yearly salary of $1,800, the top salary of any player at the time.
For the 1912–13 season the PCHA continued to raid the east for players. Besides Taylor, Goldie Prodgers, Eddie Oatman, Jack McDonald and Ernie Johnson moved out west, although Newsy Lalonde returned to Montreal. The New Westminster rink, to be built by local interests, was not ready and the Royals continued to play in Vancouver. Victoria would win the season and the club arranged for an exhibition series of the Stanley Cup champion Quebec Bulldogs. Victoria would defeat the Bulldogs, two victories to one.
During the 1913–14 season, the PCHA and the NHA started to act together, coming to agreements to recognize each other's player suspensions and contracts, and instituting a controlled "draft" process to facilitate the transfer of players. In a further agreement, the champions of each league would face each other for the Stanley Cup. After the 1914 season, league champion Victoria came east to play the first "World Series of hockey" challenge series with the Toronto Blueshirts for the Stanley Cup. After the series, the Stanley Cup trustees came to agreement with the NHA and PCHA and the challenge era of the Stanley Cup came to an end. Yearly playoffs between the leagues would become the new manner of deciding the Stanley Cup champion. In the 1914–15 season, Vancouver defeated the Ottawa Senators in a best-of-five series to become the PCHA's first Stanley Cup champions.
The league expanded into the United States in 1914 (Portland, Oregon) and again in 1915 (Seattle, Washington). In 1916, the Portland Rosebuds became the first American team to play for the Stanley Cup and the following year the Seattle Metropolitans became the first American team to win the Cup—forever changing the mandate of the Cup, which had initially been to recognize the top hockey club in Canada.
Relations with the NHA turned sour in 1915, with the Patricks accusing the league of reneging on their agreements. In retaliation, the PCHA again went on a raid for NHA players, particularly ones with the Toronto Blueshirts. Five players from Toronto became the core of the new Seattle team.
In 1918, the PCHA introduced playoffs for the first time. Until that year, the team with the best record over the season had been declared the champion and challenged for the Stanley Cup. With the creation of playoffs, it was the winner in the post-season who would be league champion.
In 1921, the Western Canada Hockey League, another western major league of hockey, was formed, and the Stanley Cup playoffs were modified to include teams from the WCHL. The following two years, which would turn out to be the last two years of the PCHA, the league played interleague games with the WCHL. In the last year of the PCHA, all three remaining teams finished with losing records.
In 1924, the Seattle Metropolitans folded, and the two remaining teams in Vancouver and Victoria joined the WCHL (renamed the Western Hockey League), putting an end to the PCHA. The Victoria Cougars would win the Stanley Cup in 1925, but this win would be the last by a non-NHL team, and the last by a team from the west coast until the Anaheim Ducks won the Stanley Cup in 2007.
The merged league did not last long, as the WHL was unable to match the NHL's American expansion and its player salaries, which led the Patrick brothers to sell players or, in the case of the Portland Rosebuds and the Victoria Cougars, the team itself. The expansion Chicago Black Hawks bought the Rosebud players for a reported $15,000, while the expansion Detroit team bought the Victoria players for $25,000 and named itself the Detroit Cougars in tribute; this team became the present-day Detroit Red Wings.
The league introduced numerous innovations to the sport of ice hockey:
The PCHA also developed a farm system for players, and were the first Canadian league to expand into the United States.
While it is debated as to which group instituted the use of jersey numbers in ice hockey, the PCHA is sometimes cited as having been the first.
As early as January 1916, Frank and Lester Patrick talked of the formation of a women's league to complement the Pacific Coast Hockey Association.The proposal included teams from Vancouver, Victoria, Portland and Seattle. The league never formed.
In February 1921, Frank Patrick announced a women's international championship series that would be played in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Hockey Association.The three teams that competed were the Vancouver Amazons, Victoria Kewpies, and Seattle Vamps.
On February 21, 1921, the Seattle Vamps competed against the Vancouver Amazons in Vancouver, and were vanquished by a 5-0 score. Two days later, the Vamps played against a team from the University of British Columbia and won the game. Jerry Reed scored three goals (a hat trick) in the game for the Vamps. In both games, the Vancouver media referred to the Seattle team as the Seattle Sweeties.The Amazons would travel to Seattle and defeat them again. On March 2, 1921, the Vamps were defeated by the Kewpies 1-0 in Seattle. In the rematch on March 12, the Vamps travelled to Victoria. The result was a 1-1 tie, and Jerry Reed scored the goal for Seattle. The goaltender for the Vamps was Mildren Terran. After the 1921 season, the Vamps and the Kewpies ceased operations.
|1912||New Westminster Royals, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Senators||New Westminster Royals|
|1912–13||New Westminster Royals, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Senators||Victoria Senators|
|1913–14||New Westminster Royals, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Victoria Aristocrats|
|1914–15||Portland Rosebuds, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Vancouver Millionaires|
|1915–16||Portland Rosebuds, Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Portland Rosebuds|
|1916–17||Portland Rosebuds, Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Spokane Canaries||Seattle Metropolitans|
|1917–18||Portland Rosebuds, Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires||Vancouver Millionaires (two-game playoff against Seattle)|
|1919||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Seattle Metropolitans (two-game playoff against Vancouver)|
|1919–20||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Seattle Metropolitans (two-game playoff against Vancouver)|
|1920–21||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Vancouver Millionaires (two-game playoff against Seattle)|
|1921–22||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Millionaires, Victoria Aristocrats||Vancouver Millionaires (two-game playoff against Seattle)|
|1922–23||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Maroons, Victoria Aristocrats||Vancouver Maroons (two-game playoff against Victoria)|
|1923–24||Seattle Metropolitans, Vancouver Maroons, Victoria Cougars||Vancouver Maroons (two-game playoff against Seattle)|
GP = Games Played, G = Goals, A = Assists, Pts = Points
Source: Bowlsby 2012 , p. 378
The National Hockey Association (NHA), officially the National Hockey Association of Canada Limited, was a professional ice hockey organization with teams in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. It is the direct predecessor to today's National Hockey League (NHL). Founded in 1909 by Ambrose O'Brien, the NHA introduced 'six-man hockey' by removing the 'rover' position in 1911. During its lifetime, the league coped with competition for players with the rival Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA), the enlistment of players for World War I and disagreements between owners. The disagreements between owners came to a head in 1917, when the NHA suspended operations in order to get rid of an unwanted owner. The remaining NHA team owners started the NHL in parallel as a temporary measure, to continue play while negotiations went on with Livingstone and other lawsuits were pending. A year later, after no progress was reached with Livingstone, the other NHA owners decided to permanently suspend the NHA. The NHA's rules, constitution and trophies were continued in the NHL.
The Vancouver Millionaires were a professional ice hockey team that competed in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association and the Western Canada Hockey League between 1911 and 1926. Based in Vancouver, British Columbia, they played in Denman Arena, the first artificial ice surface in Canada and the largest indoor ice rink in the world at the time it opened.
The Seattle Metropolitans were a professional ice hockey team based in Seattle, Washington which played in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association from 1915 to 1924. During their nine seasons, the Mets were the PCHA's most successful franchise; their 112-96 overall record better than second place Vancouver's 109-97 record. The Mets won five PCHA Championships to Vancouver's four with Seattle finishing second on three other occasions.
The Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL), founded in 1921, was a major professional ice hockey league originally based in the prairies of Canada. It was renamed the Western Hockey League (WHL) in 1925 and disbanded in 1926.
Frederick Wellington "Cyclone" Taylor, MBE was a Canadian professional ice hockey player and civil servant. A cover-point and rover, he played professionally from 1906 to 1922 for the Portage Lakes Hockey Club, the Renfrew Creamery Kings, the Ottawa Hockey Club and the Vancouver Millionaires. Acknowledged as one of the first stars of hockey, Taylor was recognised during his career as one of the fastest skaters and most prolific scorers. He won five scoring championships in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association, and twice won the Stanley Cup, with Ottawa in 1909 and Vancouver in 1915, and was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1947.
Francis Alexis "Frank" Patrick was a Canadian professional ice hockey player, NHL head coach and manager. Raised in Montreal, Patrick moved to British Columbia with his family in 1907 to establish a lumber company. The family sold the company in 1910 and used the proceeds to establish the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA), the first major professional hockey league in the West. Patrick, who also served as president of the league, would take control of the Vancouver Millionaires, serving as a player, coach, and manager of the team. It was in the PCHA that Patrick would introduce many innovations to hockey that remain today, including uniform numbers, the blue line, the penalty shot, among others. His Millionaires won the Stanley Cup in 1915, the first team west of Manitoba to do so, and played for the Cup again in 1918.
Charles Corbett "Corb" Denneny was a Canadian professional ice hockey forward who played professionally from 1912 to 1931, including nine seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL) for the Toronto Arenas, Toronto St. Pats, Hamilton Tigers and Chicago Black Hawks. Corbett also played for the Vancouver Maroons of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) and the Saskatoon Sheiks of Western Canada Hockey League. He twice won the Stanley Cup with the original versions of the NHL's Toronto franchise.
Patrick Arena was the main sports arena located in the Greater Victoria, British Columbia, area. The wood constructed arena was located in the suburb municipality of Oak Bay, on the north east corner of Cadboro Bay Road and Epworth Street. Built in 1911 at a cost of $110,000 with a capacity for 4,000 spectators, it officially opened with public skating on December 25, 1911. More than 600 skaters enjoyed the thrill of opening day. The owners, Frank and Lester Patrick, built the arena primarily to accommodate their hockey team in the newly formed Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA).
The New Westminster Royals was the name of several professional ice hockey teams based in New Westminster, British Columbia, first established in 1911 for the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA). Though nominally based in New Westminster, the team played its home games at the Denman Arena in nearby Vancouver, as an arena was not available; the team would never play a PCHA home game in New Westminster as a result. They won the inaugural PCHA championship in 1912, though financial difficulties saw the team relocated to Portland, Oregon in 1914 and become the Portland Rosebuds.
The 1915 Stanley Cup Finals was played from March 22–26, 1915. The Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) champion Vancouver Millionaires swept the National Hockey Association (NHA) champion Ottawa Senators three games to none in a best-of-five game series. The finals were played in Vancouver, with games one, three and five played under PCHA rules. The Millionaires became the first team from the PCHA to win the Cup. This was the second Stanley Cup championship series between the champions of the NHA and the PCHA and the first held in a PCHA rink.
Edward Cole "Eddie" Oatman was a Canadian professional ice hockey player. He was among the elite goal scorers of his era. Among his 32 years (1907–39) playing professional ice hockey, Oatman was named an all-star for ten consecutive seasons by the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA). He was a star with the Quebec Bulldogs when it won the 1912 Stanley Cup. Oatman played with clubs that won five league championships, and he was a successful coach and captain of five different hockey teams. His brother Russell also played professional ice hockey.
The 1912 PCHA season was the first season of the now defunct men's professional ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league, which was founded on December 7, 1911. Teams were to play a sixteen-game schedule, but one game was cancelled. The New Westminster club would be the first PCHA champions. The Royals would challenge NHA champion Quebec for the Stanley Cup, but the season ended too late to play in the east.
The 1912–13 PCHA season was the second season of the professional men's ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. Season play ran from December 10, 1912, until March 18, 1913. Like the previous season, teams were to play a 16-game schedule, but one game was cancelled. The Victoria Aristocrats club would be the PCHA champions. After the season the club would play, and win, an exhibition series against the Quebec Bulldogs, NHA champions.
The 1913–14 PCHA season was the third season of the professional men's ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. Season play ran from December 5, 1913, until February 24, 1914. Like the previous two seasons, teams were to play a 16-game schedule, but one game was cancelled. The Victoria Aristocrats club would be the PCHA champions. After the season, Victoria travelled to Toronto to play the Toronto Hockey Club, National Hockey Association (NHA) champions, in a challenge series for the 1914 Stanley Cup. Toronto won the series.
The 1914–15 PCHA season was the fourth season of the professional men's ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. Season play ran from December 8, 1914, until March 9, 1915. The schedule was made for each team to play 18 games, but like the previous three seasons, one game was cancelled. The Vancouver Millionaires club were the PCHA champions. After the season the club faced off against the Ottawa Senators, NHA champions for the Stanley Cup, winning the series and becoming the first west-coast team to win the Cup.
The 1916–17 PCHA season was the sixth season of the professional men's ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. Season play ran from December 1, 1916, until March 2, 1917. The season was expanded to 24 games per team, except that the final game was cancelled. The Seattle Metropolitans club would be PCHA champions. After the season the club would play the Stanley Cup finals series against the Montreal Canadiens, NHA champions. Seattle would win the best-of-five series 3–1 to win the Cup.
The 1922–23 PCHA season was the 12th season of the professional men's ice hockey Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. Season play ran from November 13, 1922, until March 2, 1923. The Vancouver Maroons club would be regular-season PCHA champions, and won the play-off with Victoria Aristocrats.
Thomas Wilfred "Smokey, Fred" Harris was a Canadian professional ice hockey player. Harris played in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA), the National Hockey League (NHL) and the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL). Harris was born in Port Arthur, Ontario. His brother Henry was also a professional ice hockey player. Harris scored the first goal in Boston Bruins' franchise history.
The 1914–15 Vancouver Millionaires season was the fourth season of the professional men's ice hockey Vancouver Millionaires team of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association league. The Millionaires were the PCHA champions. After the season the club faced off against the Ottawa Senators, NHA champions for the Stanley Cup. The Millionaires won the series to become the first west-coast team to win the Cup. This was the first time that a team from Vancouver won the Stanley Cup.
Portland Rosebuds was the name of two professional men's ice hockey teams in Portland, Oregon. Both teams played their home games at the Portland Ice Arena. The first Rosebuds are notable for being the first American based team to compete for the Stanley Cup. The second Rosebuds are notable in that their roster was used to build the NHL expansion Chicago Blackhawks.