|Founder||Peter Sarmanian (d. July 11, 2001)|
Printed Circuit Corporation (PCC) was founded in 1961 and was a contract printed circuit board manufacturer located in Woburn, Massachusetts. (SIC Code 3672).PCC provided its products to companies in the electronics, instrumentation, medical, telecommunication, and automotive industries. The majority of the boards produced were multilayer (4, 6, 8, or 10-layer).
Woburn is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 38,120 at the 2010 census. Woburn is located 9 miles (14 km) north of Boston, Massachusetts.
In 1995, the environmental advances made by the firm were highlighted in a joint study by The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute in conjunction with the University of Massachusetts Lowell.
The University of Massachusetts Lowell is a public research university in Lowell, Massachusetts. The university is part of the University of Massachusetts system and has been regionally accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC) since 1975. With over 1,150 faculty members and over 18,000 students, it is the largest university in the Merrimack Valley and the second-largest public institution in the state.
In 2001, PCC was featured on an ABC-TV business news show called Business Now.The show featured the technology that the company used and the management disciplines that allowed it to compete effectively in the world PWB market.
Peter Sarmanian was the founder and CEO of Printed Circuit Corporation. Sarmanian's contributions to the PWB industry as a whole have been recognized by the IPC on an annual basis.
IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics Industries, is a trade association whose aim is to standardize the assembly and production requirements of electronic equipment and assemblies. It was founded in 1957 as the Institute for Printed Circuits. Its name was later changed to the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits to highlight the expansion from bare boards to packaging and electronic assemblies. In 1999, the organization formally changed its name to IPC with the accompanying tagline, Association Connecting Electronics Industries.
Peter Sarmanian started Printed Circuit Corporation in 1961 during the early days of the computer industry. Sarmanian was pursuing an undergraduate technical degree at Northeastern University after having returned from service in the Korean War. [ citation needed ]His first significant production contracts were to manufacture printed circuit boards for the technology innovators of the 1960s - early minicomputer companies like RCA Computer Systems, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Data General Corporation.
Northeastern University (NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, Roxbury, South End, and Back Bay neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina; Seattle, Washington; and San Jose, California, that exclusively offer graduate degrees. An additional satellite campus opened in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in late 2016. The university's enrollment is approximately 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it.
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Sarmanian was a pioneer in the electro-chemical production of printed circuit boards. The new process offered far greater reliability for the printed circuit boards and far higher density (chips and circuitry per square inch) for packaging components.
When Sarmanian launched the company, most computer and electronics manufacturers were fabricating their own boards.[ citation needed ] Independent suppliers, however, became increasingly efficient and were proving a more cost-effective solution for a broad range of printed circuit board applications. Likewise, computer and electronics manufacturers became more comfortable using suppliers for key electronic components, including printed circuit boards. Reductions in time to market, engineering/prototyping costs, and manufacturing ramp-up costs were being demonstrated by these suppliers to win business.[ citation needed ] In 1979, 40% of all rigid printed circuit board fabrication was being outsourced to suppliers like PCC. By 1989, that figure was about 60%, and by 1995, 80%. By 2001, 98% of all printed circuit board production was going to external suppliers. Industry analysts placed total bookings for printed circuit board production worldwide at approximately $30 billion in 2000, with the US market comprising about a third of that dollar volume.
Sarmanian built a profitable company with approximately $30 million a year in revenue at its peak in 2000, and a 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) fabrication plant on Route 128 outside of Boston. At the time, he had 240 employees working two full shifts a day, and sometimes, another half shift for limited production of new prototype boards.[ citation needed ]
Sarmanian died in July 2001 following a bout with cancer.The company filed for reorganization shortly thereafter, then was acquired by Manchester, NH-based fabricator Electropac in October 2002.
PCC had traditionally operated in the mid-range segment, providing boards to New England-based minicomputer companies. Sarmanian bought state-of-the-art equipment to keep pace with the industry, but he always did it as a follower. At the beginning of the 1980s, Sarmanian saw that volumes in the low-end were beginning to explode and decided to diversify.[ citation needed ] By 1995, only 50% of PCC's revenues came from its traditional mid-range customers; the other 50% came from low-end consumer electronics manufacturers.[ citation needed ] By 1995 his company was a $20 million a year business.[ citation needed ] However, this low-end high-volume strategy got the company into financial trouble when the market for video game cartridges for the Atari and Intellivision systems collapsed.
By the early 1980s, offshore manufacturers had started low complexity, high volume fabrication. By the end of the decade, they dominated it.[ citation needed ] In this semi-automated, high volume process, the offshore producers were able to quote substantially lower prices due to cheap labor. By 1995, the consumer electronics manufacturers had moved virtually all their business to Asian fabricators. Because of this foray into the low-end, by 1995 PCC's profits had declined 90%. New management was brought in during 1996 and 1997 to help turn the company around.[ citation needed ]
New management shed the unprofitable low-end business to refocus on the mid- range, more technologically complex segment of the market.[ citation needed ] These changes were made in time to capture some explosive growth. Historically, the PCB market had grown about 6% a year, but from 1995-2000 it grew at 10%.[ citation needed ] By 2000, the company's sales had increased to $30 million.[ citation needed ] Laser drilling, better solder masking for finishing printed circuitry, and semi-automated systems for electrical testing of finished boards were the major improvements needed to get to industry parity.[ citation needed ]
PCC named Glen Kashgegian president and COO in 2000.
In June 2001, Printed Circuit Corp. acquired the circuit board fabrication business of CPC in Randolph, MA.
Amid the tech recession of 2001–03, the company failed to adjust as customers migrated to lower cost products from China, and filed for reorganization in September 2002. The company then was acquired by Manchester, NH-based fabricator Electropac in October 2002.Ultimately, as the North American Printed Circuit market continued to shrink and consolidate, Electropac closed their business and sold certain assets to another competitor, located in Nashua NH, named Mass Design.
In 1990, the company was fined $407,835 for allegedly violating state sewer regulations 60 times over two years and ignoring orders to stop. The penalty was the third-largest in the history of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority at the time.
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company produced power management integrated circuits, display drivers, audio and operational amplifiers, communication interface products and data conversion solutions. National's key markets included wireless handsets, displays and a variety of broad electronics markets, including medical, automotive, industrial and test and measurement applications.
Flexible electronics, also known as flex circuits, is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide, PEEK or transparent conductive polyester film. Additionally, flex circuits can be screen printed silver circuits on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using identical components used for rigid printed circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to flex during its use. An alternative approach to flexible electronics suggests various etching techniques to thin down the traditional silicon substrate to few tens of micrometers to gain reasonable flexibility, referred to as flexible silicon.
Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips while outsourcing the fabrication of the devices to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry. Foundries are typically, but not exclusively, located in mainland China and Taiwan because of the generally low cost of labor. Thus, fabless companies can benefit from lower capital costs while concentrating their research and development resources on the end market.
The Gerber format is an open ASCII vector format for 2D binary images. It is the de facto standard used by printed circuit board (PCB) industry software to describe the printed circuit board images: copper layers, solder mask, legend, etc.
Teradyne, based in North Reading, Massachusetts in the United States, is a developer and supplier of automatic test equipment (ATE). The company's divisions Semiconductor Test and Systems Test Group, are organized by the products they develop and deliver. Teradyne's high-profile customers include Samsung, Qualcomm, Intel, Analog Devices, Texas Instruments and IBM.
Solectron Corporation was a global electronics manufacturing company for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). It was the first electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry in 1977. Solectron's first customer designed and distributed an electronic controller for solar energy equipment. The name "Solectron" was a portmanteau of the words "solar" and "electronics". The company was acquired by Flex on October 15, 2007.
OrCAD Systems Corporation was a software company that made OrCAD, a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation (EDA). The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and electronic technicians to create electronic schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. OrCAD was taken over by Cadence Design Systems in 1999 and was integrated with Cadence Allegro since 2005.
Sanmina Corporation is an American electronics manufacturing services (EMS) provider headquartered in San Jose, California that serves original equipment manufacturers in communications and computer hardware fields. The firm has nearly 80 manufacturing sites, and is one of the world’s largest independent manufacturers of printed circuit boards and backplanes. As of 2018, it is ranked number 411 in the Fortune 500 list, and has been included in the list for the 18th year.
Electronics manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, manufacture, test, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronics contract manufacturing (ECM).
Zuken Inc. is a Japanese multinational corporation, specializing in software and consulting services for end-to-end electrical and electronic engineering. Zuken came into existence as a pioneer in the development of CAD systems in Japan to contribute to electronics manufacturing. The literal translation of Zuken is "graphics laboratory." Established in 1976 in Yokohama, Japan, it is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange; net sales amounted to USD216 million for the year 2011.
An electrostatic-sensitive device is any component which can be damaged by common static charges which build up on people, tools, and other non-conductors or semiconductors. ESD commonly also stands for electrostatic discharge.
Integrated Micro-electronics, Inc. provides electronics manufacturing services (EMS) and power semiconductor assembly and test services (SATS) with manufacturing facilities in Asia, Europe, and North America. Its headquarters is located in Biñan, Laguna, Philippines.
Altium Limited is an American, Australian-domiciled owned public software company that provides PC-based electronics design software for engineers who design printed circuit boards. Founded as Protel Systems Pty Ltd in Tasmania, Australia in 1985, Altium now has regional headquarters in the United States, Australia, China, Europe, and Japan, with resellers in all other major markets.
Precision Castparts Corp. is an American industrial goods and metal fabrication company that manufactures investment castings, forged components, and airfoil castings for use in the aerospace, industrial gas turbine, and defense industries. In 2009 it ranked 362nd on the Fortune 500 list, and 11th in the aerospace and defense industry. In 2015 it ranked 322nd overall and 9th in the aerospace and defense industry. In 2014 it ranked 133rd on the S&P 500 based on market capitalization. In January 2016, the company became a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. Before that event, it used to be one of the three Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Oregon.
Orbotech Ltd. is a technology company used in the manufacturing of consumer and industrial products throughout the electronics and adjacent industries. The company is a provider of yield enhancement and production solutions for electronics reading, writing and connecting, used by manufacturers of printed circuit boards, flat panel displays, advanced packaging, micro-electro-mechanical systems and other electronic components. The company is headquartered in Yavne, Israel and operates in North America, Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific.
Elron Electronic Industries is an Israeli technology holding company based in Tel Aviv; since 1962 the company has been involved in setting up, funding and developing over 30 companies and is considered one of the foundation stones of the high-tech industry in Israel. The company's sectors of interest include clean technology, software, semiconductors, medical technology, telecommunications, defence and aerospace. Today, the combined annual revenues of the companies established by Elron are approximately $5 billion.
Veroboard is a brand of stripboard, a pre-formed circuit board material of copper strips on an insulating bonded paper board which was originated and developed in the early 1960s by the Electronics Department of Vero Precision Engineering Ltd (VPE). It was introduced as a general-purpose material for use in constructing electronic circuits - differing from purpose-designed printed circuit boards (PCBs) in that a variety of electronics circuits may be constructed using a standard wiring board.
A coupon or test coupon is a printed circuit board (PCB) used to test the quality of a printed wiring board (PWB) fabrication process. Test coupons are fabricated on the same panel as the PWBs, typically at the edges. Coupons are then inspected to ensure proper layer alignment, electrical connectivity, and cross sectioned to inspect internal structures. Coupons can be designed custom for a PWB or selected from a vendor library.