RAI National Symphony Orchestra (Italian: Orchestra Sinfonica Nazionale della RAI di Torino) is an Italian symphony orchestra, based in Turin and owned by the state radio and television company RAI. Its primary concert venue is the Auditorium RAI in the Piazza Rossaro in Turin. All of the orchestra's concerts are broadcast on RAI Radio3. The orchestra's current artistic director is Ernesto Schiavi.
In 1931, EIAR, Italy’s newly-born public radio authority, founded its first symphony orchestra in Turin. Subsequent radio orchestras were established in Rome, Milan and Naples, but in 1994 all four were merged as one, in Turin and under the name “RAI National Symphony Orchestra.” The new ensemble’s opening concerts were led by Georges Prêtre and Giuseppe Sinopoli.
From 1996 to 2001 Eliahu Inbal held the title of Direttore onorario (honorary conductor) of the orchestra. Jeffrey Tate was principal guest conductor of the orchestra from 1998 to 2002, and had the title of Direttore onorario until July 2011. Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos was principal conductor of the orchestra from 2001 to 2007. Gianandrea Noseda was principal guest conductor from 2003 to 2006.
Since 2009, Juraj Valčuha has been principal conductor of the orchestra. He is scheduled to step down from the post in 2016. In June 2015, the orchestra announced the appointment of James Conlon as its next principal conductor, effective with the 2016-2017 season. Conlon first guest-conducted the orchestra in 2009.