|Highest governing body||Confederazione Boccistica Internazionale|
|Team members||Individual, team|
|Equipment||Bocce (balls) & pallino (jack)|
|World Games||2009 – 2017|
Raffa (also known as raffa bocce or roundup), is a specialty, both male and female, of boules. It is governed by Confederazione Boccistica Internazionale (CBI).
Along with pétanque and bocce volo, it is one of the three specialties proposed by the Confédération Mondiale des Sports de Boules (all of which are included in the World Games) as possible new disciplines for the 2024 Summer Olympics.
The specialty is named after the "raffa shot", a special shot made to strike - on the fly or with the help of the ground - a certain piece (jack or balls) indicated in advance; all pieces placed within 13 cm of that indicated are valid.
Raffa can be played individually, in pairs or in trio.Matches end at 12 points, while the finals at 15 points.
Bocce, sometimes anglicized as bocce ball, bocci or boccie, is a ball sport belonging to the boules family, closely related to British bowls and French pétanque, with a common ancestry from ancient games played in the Roman Empire. Developed into its present form in Italy, bocce is played around Europe and also in other areas with Italian immigrants, including Australia, North America, and South America, principally Argentina and Rio Grande do Sul. Initially played only by the Italian immigrants, the game has slowly become more popular with their descendants and more broadly.
Pétanque is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling. In all of these sports, players or teams play their boules/balls towards a target ball.
Boules is a collective name for a wide range of games similar to bowls and bocce in which the objective is to throw or roll heavy balls as close as possible to a small target ball, called the jack in English.
Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water's surface using a snorkel with either monofins or bifins or underwater with monofin either by holding one's breath or using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS). The sport's first world championship was held in 1976. It also has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was demonstrated at the 2015 European Games in June 2015.
A water polo cap is a piece of headgear used in water polo and a number of underwater sports. The caps are used to identify both the player and their team, and to protect their ears from injury possibly caused by a water polo ball hitting the head.
The CEB European Three-cushion Championship is three-cushion billiards tournament organized by the Confédération Européenne de Billard. Held since 1932, it is one of longest-running tournaments in the sport. The 2007 event offered a total purse of €18,500 (US$26,134) with €4,000 ($5,651) for the winner.
Jeu provençal is a French form of boules.
Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon, finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.
Fédération Internationale de Boules is part of the "Confédération Mondiale des Sports de Boules" which is the highest international authority of bocce sports acknowledged by the International Olympic Committee. The current FIB president is Christian Lacoste from France.
Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) is an international federation that represents underwater activities in underwater sport and underwater sciences, and oversees an international system of recreational snorkel and scuba diver training and recognition. It is also known by its English name, the World Underwater Federation, and its Spanish name, Confederación Mundial De Actividades Subacuáticas. Its foundation in Monaco during January 1959 makes it one of the world's oldest underwater diving organisations.
The Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins (FFESSM) is a French sports federation specialized in recreational and competition underwater sports, like scuba diving and freediving. It is the main diver training organization in France.
The Confédération Mondiale des Sports de Boules (CMSB) is the international organization, recognized by the International Olympic Committee, which governs the sport of the boules.
The Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond, (NOB) is the national governing body for recreational diving and underwater sports in the Netherlands. It was founded in 1962. In 2008 there were 290 scuba diving clubs and schools with a total of 20.000 members. The NOB is a member of CMAS Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. The aim of the NOB is to develop recreational scuba diving in the Netherlands.
Aquathlon is an underwater sport, where two competitors wearing masks and fins wrestle underwater in an attempt to remove a ribbon from each other's ankle band in order to win the bout. The "combat" takes place in a 5-metre (16 ft) square ring within a swimming pool, and is made up of three 30-second rounds, with a fourth round played in the event of a tie. The sport originated during the 1980s in the former USSR and was first played at international level in 1993. It was recognised by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) in 2008. Combat aquathlon practice training engagements not only under water, but also afloat, above the water surface, both with or without diving gear, utilizing dummy weapons or barehanded, combined with grappling and choking techniques in order to neutralize or submit the opponent.
Sport diving is an underwater sport that uses recreational open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool that test the competitors' competency in recreational scuba diving techniques. The sport was developed in Spain during the late 1990s and is currently played mainly in Europe. It is known as Plongée Sportive en Piscine in French and as Buceo De Competición in Spanish.
The Pétanque World Championships are international pétanque competitions organized by the International Federation of Petanque and Provençal game; F.I.P.J.P..
Underwater orienteering is an underwater sport that uses recreational open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and team events conducted in both sheltered and open water testing the competitors competency in underwater navigation. The competition is principally concerned with the effectiveness of navigation technique used by competitors to swim an underwater course following a route marked on a map prepared by the competition organisers, a compass and a counter meter to measure the distance covered. The sport was developed in the Soviet Union during the late 1950s and is currently played mainly in Europe. It is known as Orientation Sub in French and as La Orientación Subacuática in Spanish. Historically, the sport has also been known as Technical Disciplines.
The 14th CMAS Underwater Photography World Championship was held from April 9 – 14, 2013 in Cuba at Cayo Largo. David Barrio of Spain was announced as the CMAS World Champion in underwater photography for 2013 and received the gold medal while runners-up Stefano Proakis and Michele Davino both representing Italy respectively received the silver and bronze medals.
Confédération Internationale de la Pêche Sportive (CIPS) which was founded in 1952 is the international sport federation representing a number of international federations concerned with angling sports that are carried out in fresh or seawater environments, fly fishing and with casting sport.
CMAS two-star scuba diver is a diving certification for recreational scuba diving issued by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS).