Rotation (music)

Last updated

In broadcasting, rotation is the repeated airing of a limited playlist of songs on a radio station or satellite radio channel, or music videos on a TV network. [1] They are usually in a different order each time. However, they are not completely shuffled, so as to avoid varying the time between any two consecutive plays of a given song by either too much or too little. When measuring airplay, the number of times a song is played is counted as spins.

Broadcasting distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio or visual mass communications medium

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was later adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898.

A playlist is a list of video or audio files that can be played back on a media player either sequentially or in a shuffled order. In its most general form, an audio playlist is simply a list of songs, but sometimes a loop. The term has several specialized meanings in the realms of television broadcasting, radio broadcasting and personal computers.

Song composition for voice(s)

A song is a single work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals.

Stations playing new music typically have a short rotation of around four hours, while stations playing "classics" may go as long as eight hours. College radio and indie radio stations sometimes have no particular rotation, only the music director's suggested lists for the disc jockeys, or are totally freeform radio. Broadcast automation systems handle a limited rotation quite well, in turn making voice tracking easy. Even if a live person is present, the automation system at commercial stations usually picks the music ahead of time out of the current rotation, thus the DJ becomes only an announcer.

A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class. The word can be an adjective or a noun. It denotes a particular quality in art, architecture, literature, design, technology, or other cultural artifacts. In commerce, products are named 'classic' to denote a long-standing popular version or model, to distinguish it from a newer variety. Classic is used to describe many major, long-standing sporting events. Colloquially, an everyday occurrence may be described in some dialects of English as 'an absolute classic'.

A music director, musical director, or director of music is the person responsible for the musical aspects of a performance, production, or organization, for example the artistic director and usually chief conductor of an orchestra or concert band, the director of music of a film, the director of music at a radio station, the person in charge of musical activities or the head of the music department in a school, the coordinator of the musical ensembles in a university, college, or institution, the head bandmaster of a military band, the head organist and choirmaster of a church, or an organist and master of the choristers.

Disc jockey person who plays recorded music for an audience

A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players, usually turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records. Originally, the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title DJ is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk.

Heavy rotation or power rotation is a list of songs that get the most airplay on a radio station. Songs in heavy rotation will be played many times in a 24-hour period. A reason for playing the same song more than once a day is that many listeners tune in expecting to hear their favorite song, and most listeners don't listen to the radio for extended periods of time. Prolonged listening to a station that places songs in heavy rotation can quickly become unpleasant; such stations are not well-suited for retail environments, where employees must listen for hours on end, and doing so can breed contempt for the music and create a hostile work environment. [2]

In United States labor law, a hostile work environment exists when one's behavior within a workplace creates an environment that is difficult or uncomfortable for another person to work in, due to discrimination. Common complaints in sexual harassment lawsuits include fondling, suggestive remarks, sexually-suggestive photos displayed in the workplace, use of sexual language, or off-color jokes. Small matters, annoyances, and isolated incidents are usually not considered illegal. To be unlawful, the conduct must create a work environment that would be intimidating, hostile, or offensive to a reasonable person. An employer can be held liable for failing to prevent these workplace conditions, unless it can prove that it attempted to prevent the harassment and that the employee failed to take advantage of existing harassment counter-measures or tools provided by the employer.

A song placed in "lunar rotation" is one that is only played in off-peak hours, usually late at night. There can be various reasons for this, but such songs are usually not hits and are played because of the personal musical preference of the DJ or programmer, to avoid more stringent daypart-based regulations on music content or to fulfill a broadcasting obligation such as Canadian content quotas. (See also "beaver hour".)

In broadcasting, the watershed or safe harbour is one or more dayparts during which it is appropriate to broadcast programming aimed towards mature or adult audiences.

Canadian content refers to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) requirements, derived from the Broadcasting Act of Canada, that radio and television broadcasters must air a certain percentage of content that was at least partly written, produced, presented, or otherwise contributed to by persons from Canada. It also refers to that content itself, and, more generally, to cultural and creative content that is Canadian in nature.

Recurrent rotation

Recurrent rotation refers to a group of songs still frequently aired on a contemporary hit radio station several months or even years after the initial debut. It is also used to describe core songs in other radio formats as well. Most charts have special rules to determine when a song has become recurrent, at which point they are removed from current charts (such as the Billboard Hot 100) and placed on special "recurrent charts". Recurrent charts tend to be more static, with fewer week-to-week changes in popularity than current charts.

Contemporary hit radio is a radio format that is common in the United States, Brazil, United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, and the Philippines, that focuses on playing current and recurrent popular music as determined by the top 40 music charts. There are several subcategories, dominantly focusing on rock, pop, or urban music. Used alone, CHR most often refers to the CHR-pop format. The term contemporary hit radio was coined in the early 1980s by Radio & Records magazine to designate top 40 stations which continued to play hits from all musical genres as pop music splintered into adult contemporary, urban contemporary and other formats

A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. In countries where radio spectrum use is legally regulated, formats may have a legal status where stations are licensed to transmit only specific formats.

The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for songs, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play, and online streaming in the United States.

The Billboard charts include these lists:

Songs that survive in recurrent rotation typically form the basis of radio formats as years advance. A hit song that is left out of recurrent rotation will eventually become known as a "forgotten 45", a name derived from the fact that singles used to be released on 45 RPM records.

Related Research Articles

Music radio is a radio format in which music is the main broadcast content. After television replaced old time radio's dramatic content, music formats became dominant in many countries. Radio drama and comedy continue, often on public radio.

Urban contemporary, also known as urban pop, or just simply urban, is a music radio format. The term was coined by New York radio DJ Frankie Crocker in the early to mid-1970s. Urban contemporary radio stations feature a playlist made up entirely of genres such as R&B, pop-rap, British R&B, quiet storm, adult contemporary, hip hop, Latin music such as Latin pops, Chicano R&B, Chicano rap, and Caribbean music such as reggae. Urban contemporary was developed through the characteristics of genres such as R&B and soul. Largely a US phenomenon, virtually all urban contemporary formatted radio stations in the United States are located in cities that have sizeable African-American populations, such as New York City, Washington, D.C., Detroit, Atlanta, Miami, Chicago, Philadelphia, Montgomery, Memphis, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Dallas, Houston, Oakland, Los Angeles, Flint, Baltimore, Boston, Birmingham, and Jackson. Urban contemporary music is also very popular in France and the United Kingdom.

Nice & Smooth is an East Coast hip hop duo from New York City that consists of Greg "Greg Nice" Mays and Daryl "Smooth B" Barnes, plus their deejay Tedd "DJ Teddy Tedd" Whiting. The duo released four albums between 1989 and 1997. Their first collaborative appearance was on the single "Dope on a Rope"/"Skill Trade" on Strange Family Records in 1987. On the strength of that underground single they managed a guest spot on the song "Pimpin Ain't Easy" by Big Daddy Kane on his 1989 album It's a Big Daddy Thing.

Classic country is a music radio format that specializes in playing mainstream country and western music hits from past decades.

In radio broadcasting, airplay is how frequently a song is being played on radio stations. A song which is being played several times every day (spins) would have a large amount of airplay. Music which became very popular on jukeboxes, in nightclubs and at discotheques between the 1940s and 1960s would also have airplay.

WDVD

WDVD is a Hot Adult Contemporary radio station in Detroit, Michigan, broadcasting at 96.3 MHz on the FM dial. Owned and operated by Cumulus Media, WDVD's studios and offices are located in the Fisher Building in Detroit's New Center district near downtown, while its transmitter is located in Oakland County in Royal Oak Township at 8 Mile Road and Wyoming Avenue.

R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay is a chart published by Billboard magazine that ranks the top R&B and hip hop songs in the United States, based on audience impressions from a panel of radio stations monitored by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. It was also used in sister publication R&R, which listed the chart as Urban National Airplay. The chart is not the R&B/hip-hop subset of the Hot 100 Airplay chart, but rather uses a separate panel of R&B stations in urban and urban adult contemporary markets. It was the primary airplay component chart of the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart until the issue dated October 20, 2012, when Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs was revamped to include digital sales, streaming, and airplay from all radio formats. The Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay chart encompasses two separate airplay charts, both of which are based on radio spins rather than audience impressions: Mainstream R&B/Hip-Hop and Adult R&B Airplay, which measure airplay on urban contemporary and urban adult contemporary stations respectively.

The Adult Contemporary chart is published weekly by Billboard magazine and lists the most popular songs on adult contemporary radio stations in the United States. The chart is compiled based on airplay data submitted to Billboard by stations that are members of the Adult Contemporary radio panel. The chart debuted in Billboard magazine on July 17, 1961. Over the years, the chart has gone under a series of name changes, being called Easy Listening(1961–1962; 1965–1979), Middle-Road Singles(1962–1964), Pop-Standard Singles(1964–1965), Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks(1979–1982) and Adult Contemporary(1983–present).

WJMH radio station in North Carolina

WJMH, "102 JAMZ," is a mainstream urban-leaning rhythmic contemporary FM radio station serving the Piedmont Triad region, with a hip hop-intense playlist. It broadcasts at 102.1 MHz with 99,000 watts of power and is licensed to Reidsville, North Carolina. Owned by Entercom, the station's studios are located near the Piedmont Triad International Airport in Greensboro, with a transmitter site near Stokesdale, North Carolina.

Shoulder Lean single by Young Dro

"Shoulder Lean" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Young Dro, released July 4, 2006 as his debut single and the lead single from his debut studio album Best Thang Smokin'. The song features Dro's fellow American rapper and Grand Hustle label-boss T.I. on the hook. The production was handled by Grand Hustle in-house producer Cordale "Lil' C" Quinn. The song was a massive hit in the United States, reaching the Top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number one on the Hot R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart. This was Young Dro's first and only Top 10 single and T.I.'s fourth Top 10 single. The song received heavy airplay and was certified 2x Platinum by RIAA.

The Rhythmic chart is an airplay chart published weekly by Billboard magazine.

WMSI-FM

WMSI-FM is a radio station in Jackson, Mississippi, and owned by iHeartMedia, Inc.. WMSI's signal covers a roughly 90 mile radius around the city with an ERP of 100,000 watts.

KSWC (defunct)

KSWC was a radio station operated by students at Southwestern College in Winfield, Kansas, United States. The station was licensed for operation by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from 1968 to 2015.

WGER

WGER is a radio station licensed to Saginaw, Michigan broadcasting a Hot Adult Contemporary format. The station broadcasts from a transmitter southeast of I-675 Exit 6 in Carrollton Township in Saginaw County.

Adult contemporary music radio format and music genre

Adult contemporary music (AC) is a North American term used to describe a form of radio-played popular music, ranging from 1960s vocal and 1970s soft rock music to predominantly ballad-heavy music of the present day, with varying degrees of easy listening, pop, soul, rhythm and blues, quiet storm, and rock influence. Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music.

Love All Over Me 2010 single by Monica

"Love All Over Me" is a song by American recording artist Monica. The Jermaine Dupri and Bryan-Michael Cox produced "Love All Over Me" rounds out Still Standing as another laid back, yet soulful track filled with admiration. The song was sent to rhythmic, urban, and urban ac airplay as the album's second single in the United States on May 31, 2010. "Love All Over Me" is a down-tempo R&B piece.

Country Airplay is a chart published weekly by Billboard magazine in the United States since January 20, 1990.

Christian Airplay is a chart published weekly by Billboard magazine in the United States since June 21, 2003.

References

  1. King, Darrell W. (2010). This Business of Gospel Music. Darrell King. p. 152. ISBN   9780615410067.
  2. Psychologists: Christmas music bad for your health. Nexstar Media Group (November 7, 2017). Retrieved November 7, 2017.