Rugby league match officials are responsible for fairly enforcing the Laws of the Game from a neutral point of view during a match of rugby league football and imposing penalties for deliberate breaches of these Laws.The most senior match official is the referee. They may be assisted by a range of other officials depending on the level and rules of the competition.
In rugby league football, the Laws of the Game are the rules governing how the sport is played. The Laws are the responsibility of the Rugby League International Federation, and cover the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of the game.
Rugby league is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field measuring 68 m wide and 112–122 m long. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players. Its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators.
The match officials may use the following equipment:
Match officials on the playing field including the referee, touch judges and in-goal judges all wear an official uniform of a colour distinguishable from those being worn by the two sides playing each other.These uniforms have no special markings to signify the official capacity of the wearer, instead this can be identified by the positioning and equipment of the official.
Different refereeing systems are in use:
The players of each team should be made available for kit inspection.The referee inspects the playing kit of the two teams to ensure it is within the rules, safety is the main concern. The boots worn by players can be of particular interest so as to make sure that there are no sharp edges. The strapping worn by some players has also been scrutinised.
The referee organises a coin toss with the captains of the two teams playing to decide which team kicks off and which end they play at from kick-off.
Referees may take disciplinary action from the moment they enter the playing field until the moment they leave it after they have blown their whistle to signal full-time.The referee may blow for half time and full-time when those periods have elapsed, or after hearing the hooter if responsibility has been delegated.
The rugby league playing field, also referred to as a pitch or paddock, is the playing surface for the sport of rugby league football and is surfaced exclusively with grass.
Potential top level referees must first pass refereeing exams set by a governing body, such as the Rugby Football League in the United Kingdom, before officiating at progressively more senior levels of the sport, gaining experience in amateur competitions and then moving onto the professional leagues where they will progress to the top if good enough.Referees need to be "very fit", with physical training being a requirement at a professional level of competition. Good communication skills, an ability to "handle top athletes with respect and authority" and being able to operate under pressure and scrutiny have been cited as by Stuart Cummings, a former referee, as skills needed to control a game.
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League previously also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation. This has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1.
Stuart Cummings is the former Match Officials Director of the Rugby Football League, and a former international referee.
Full-time referees have been used in the Super League professional competition since 2007.
The referee having made a decision should indicate that decision by using a signal.
Two touch judges are used in a rugby league game.They move along each touch line following play. Their main function is to judge when the ball or a player carrying the ball has gone into touch. They also stand together behind the goal posts to judge whether conversions or penalty kicks at goal have been successful.
The touch judges cannot stop play but can signal the referee to enable them to assist the referee.
The video referee may be called upon by the referee to examine the play in possible tries. In the Super League competition they can examine play from the preceding play-the-ball. A video referee may also be asked to check whether an attempted 40-20 kick has been successful and sometimes called upon by the referee if there is a stoppage to check events before making a decision. Once a decision has been made by the on field referee, the video referee may not overrule it.
The video referee was first seen in Australia at the 1996 Super League World Nines.The use of the video referee has led to new rule interpretations. In Northern Hemisphere competitions, the video referee is stationed at the ground itself, usually in either the TV production truck or a special booth inside the stadium, while in the NRL a group of video referees make decisions on all matches from "The Bunker", a specially-constructed facility near league headquarters in Sydney modeled after similar instant-replay rooms used by American sports leagues like MLB or the NHL.
In-goal judges may be used if no video referee system is present at a match to assist the referee in his decision making.
The referee shall keep the time during a game unless this responsibility is delegated to an appointed official.Delegation of responsibility is usually decided by the rules of a competition, it is standard practice for professional competitions to use an appointed official in place of the referee.
The British Rugby Football League's Operational Rules, for example, require the home team to provide a timekeeper for first team games with the away team being entitled to bring their own to sit alongside their opponent's representative.The timekeepers signal half time and full-time as well as extra time periods if they are played. When time has expired the timekeepers sound the hooter, at this signal the referee will blow his whistle to end play at an existing stoppage or wait for the next one to occur.
A referee can signal by raising both arms to a timekeeper to take account of stoppage time and to stop their watch until signalled again by waving one arm above their head to carry on timing.
A timekeeper may be used to assist the referee in timing the temporary suspension (sin bin) of a player.
The Match Commissioner is responsible for the whole game. They ensure the game kicks off on time and any incidents that may arise are brought to the attention of the Rugby Football League. This is an essential role as it allows the game to run consistently without any interruptions
The Interchange Official ensures that the interchange process is carried out smoothly and legally. No interchange can take place without the Interchange Official present. Usually, the Interchange Official will be responsible for the home team's interchange and the Reserve Referee/Official will be responsible for the away team's interchange.
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores more goals wins.
A referee or simply ref is the person of authority in a variety of sports who is responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on-the-fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such as ejection. The official tasked with this job may be known, in addition to referee, by a variety of other titles as well, including official, umpire, judge, arbiter, arbitrator, linesman, commissaire, timekeeper, touch judge or Technical Official.
The referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game (LOTG) during an association football match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee; however, the assistant referees' decisions are not binding and the referee has authority to overrule an assistant referee. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the very highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees.
A try is a way of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league football. A try is scored by grounding the ball in the opposition's in-goal area. Rugby union and league differ slightly in defining 'grounding the ball' and the 'in-goal' area.
A touch judge is an official who monitors the touch-line in a game of rugby union or rugby league and raises a flag if the ball goes into touch. Touch judges also stand behind the posts to confirm that a goal has been scored following a penalty kick or conversion of a try. There are two touch judges, one for each touch-line and each holding a different coloured flag.
A rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field, with four substitutes on the bench. Each of the thirteen players is assigned a position, normally with a standardised number, which reflects their role in attack and defence, although players can take up any position at any time.
The International Rugby League (IRL) is the global governing body for the sport of rugby league football. Previously known as the Rugby League Imperial Board, the International Rugby League Board and latterly the Rugby League International Federation, the IRL is responsible for the Laws of the Game, the development, organisation and governance of rugby leagues internationally, and for the sport's major international tournaments; most notably the Rugby League World Cup.
Penalty cards are used in many sports as a means of warning, reprimanding or penalising a player, coach or team official. Penalty cards are most commonly used by referees or umpires to indicate that a player has committed an offense. The official will hold the card above his or her head while looking or pointing towards the player that has committed the offence. This action makes the decision clear to all players, as well as spectators and other officials in a manner that is language-neutral. The colour or shape of the card used by the official indicates the type or seriousness of the offence and the level of punishment that is to be applied. Yellow and red cards are the most common, typically indicating, respectively, cautions and dismissals.
This list of rugby league terms is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of rugby league football. The sport has accrued a considerable amount of jargon to describe aspects of the game. Many terms originate from the Laws of the Game. A number of aspects of the game have more than one term that refers to them. Different terms have become popularly used to describe an aspect of the game in different places with notable differences between the northern and southern hemispheres.
A comparison of Canadian football and rugby league football can be made because of their shared origins, resulting in similarities and shared concepts in terms of scoring and advancing the ball. Aside from American football, rugby league is the sport most similar to Canadian football. Both sports involve the concept of a limited number of 'downs'/'tackles', and in both sports scoring 'touchdowns'/'tries' takes a clear precedence over goal-kicking.
The Rugby League All Stars Match of the National Rugby League is an annual rugby league football match between the specially-formed Indigenous All Stars and an All Stars team, both of whose members are made available for selection public vote. The game has been played since 2010 at Gold Coast, Queensland's Skilled Park. The player judged man-of-the-match is awarded the Preston Campbell Medal, named after indigenous Gold Coast player, Preston Campbell. Between 2010 and 2015, the Indigenous All Stars opponent was an NRL All Stars team, they were replaced for 2016 by a World All Stars team.
Rugby union match officials are responsible for enforcing the rugby union laws of the game during a match and imposing sanctions on individuals who do not follow the rules. It is well known that the refs are fair, however, Jerome Garces is biased and a nonce. "Every match is under the control of match officials who consist of the referee and two touch judges or assistant referees." Further officials can be authorised depending on the level and form of the game.
Luke Phillips is an Australian professional rugby league football match official and former player. He started refereeing National Rugby League Premiership matches in 2010, having played seven seasons in the 1990s and 2000s as a goal-kicking fullback for the Sydney Roosters, Canberra Raiders, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles and North Queensland Cowboys.
The NRL Auckland Nines was a rugby league nines competition staged by Duco Events with the National Rugby League and played annually prior to the beginning of the NRL season proper from 2014 until 2017. The inaugural five player tournament was staged between 15 – 16 February 2014, with subsequent tournaments being played earlier in the year normally at the end of January. The NRL signed a five-year agreement for Auckland's Eden Park to host the tournament with the 2014 event being the first.
The 2016 Rugby League Four Nations tournament was the fifth staging of the Rugby League Four Nations tournament and was played in England in October and November. The series was contested by Australia, England, New Zealand and Scotland, who qualified for their first Four Nations by winning the 2014 European Cup. It was won by Australia, who defeated New Zealand in the final.
The rules of water polo are the rules and regulations which cover the play, procedure, equipment and officiating of water polo. These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations to the rules do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organisation for the rules; the NCAA rules, which govern the rules for collegiate matches in the United States; the NFHS rules which govern the rules in high schools in the USA and the IOC rules which govern the rules at Olympic events.
The RFL Match Officials are a select group of professional Rugby League match officials who officiate the top three divisions of Rugby League in Britain.
The NRL Women's Premiership (NRLW) is Australia's national rugby league competition for female players. The first season of the league began in September 2018 with four teams. The league is run by the National Rugby League (NRL) and is contested by a subset of clubs from that competition. The current premiers are the Brisbane Broncos.
The 2019 Rugby League World Cup 9s was the first staging of the Rugby League World Cup 9s tournament and took place on 18 and 19 October 2019 at Sydney's Bankwest Stadium. The tournament featured teams from 12 International Rugby League member countries, 4 of which also fielded teams in the women's tournament. In the men's final, Australia defeated New Zealand, while in the women's final, New Zealand defeated Australia.