Sabah, amongst other newspapers
|Owner(s)||Turkuvaz Media Group|
|Associate editor||Metin Yüksel|
|Founded||22 April 1985|
|Sister newspapers||Yeni Asır, Takvim, Fotomaç|
Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011. Its name means "morning" in Turkish.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
The newspaper was founded in Izmir by Dinç Bilgin on 22 April 1985.
Dinç Bilgin is a Turkish businessman who built up a media empire which was seized by the Turkish government in 2002 over alleged financial irregularities. He founded a number of newspapers including Sabah (1985) and Takvim (1994), and a number of television stations, including ATV (1993). He also founded the now-defunct Ateş and Yeni Yüzyıl in 1995, selling them to Korkmaz Yiğit in 1998.
In 2007, the government of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan seized the newspaper, citing a legal document that had not been disclosed to authorities when Sabah was sold in 2001. Ownership of the newspaper was given to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund of Turkey. Some of the newspaper's staffers were fired, and the paper was then sold to the Turkuvaz Media Group belonging to Çalık Holding whose CEO, Berat Albayrak, is the son-in-law of Erdoğan and whose chairman, Ahmet Çalık, has been described as a "close associate" of Erdoğan.The $1.1bn sale aroused substantial controversy in Turkey, not least because it was partially financed by $750m of loans from two state banks, VakıfBank and Halkbank, and was sold for the minimum price, with Çalık Holding the sole bidder.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as the 12th and current President of Turkey since 2014. He previously served as Prime Minister from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001, leading it to general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down upon his election as President in 2014. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration.
The Savings Deposit Insurance Fund of Turkey, a.k.a. TMSF in abbreviated form, is the governing body concerned with matters of fund management and insurance in the Turkish banking system.
Çalık Holding has been operating in the energy, construction, mining, textile, finance, and telecom sectors since the 1980s. Founder and chairman Ahmet Çalık began his business career in the textile industry, founding Orta Doğu Tekstil in 1981 and Çalık Denim in 1987. During the early-1990s independence of CIS countries, he made his first foreign investments and founded Gap Pazarlama and Gap İnşaat. Group companies were brought together as Çalık Holding in 1997. The umbrella company founded Çalık Enerji in 1998 and Aktif Bank in 1999 to enter the energy and finance sectors.
According to Aslı Aydıntaşbaş, who was Sabah's Ankara bureau chief until the takeover, from then on the newspaper took on "an unwavering pro-government line."
Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.
The Kalyon Group took over the newspaper in 2013.
Kalyon Group is a Turkish conglomerate, with major interests in construction. In 2013 it was part of a joint venture which won the EUR22bn contract to construct a third international airport in Istanbul. Other contracts include Istanbul's Metrobus system, the construction of a new stadium for İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi S.K., and the redevelopment of Taksim Gezi Park to reconstruct the Taksim Military Barracks.
Kalyon Group is the current publisher, while Erdal Şafak is the editor-in-chief.
Sabah has published The New York Times International Weekly on Sundays since 2009. This 8-page supplement features a selection of articles from The New York Times translated into Turkish. The partnership with the New York Times was terminated in 2014 without any formal explanation given.[ citation needed ]
Cumhuriyet is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper. Headquartered in Istanbul, the newspaper also has offices in Ankara and İzmir.
The Philadelphia Daily News is a tabloid newspaper that serves Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The newspaper is owned by Philadelphia Media Network, which also owns Philadelphia's other major newspaper The Philadelphia Inquirer.
Zaman, sometimes stylized as ZAMAN, was a daily newspaper in Turkey. Zaman was a major, high-circulation daily before government seizure on 4 March 2016 It was founded in 1986 and was the first Turkish daily to go online in 1995. It contains national (Turkish), international, business, and other news. It also has many regular columnists who cover current affairs, interviews, and a culture section.
The media of Turkey includes a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing disparate views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. However, media ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few large private media groups which are typically part of wider conglomerates controlled by wealthy individuals, which limits the views that are presented. In addition, the companies are willing to use their influence to support their owners' wider business interests, including by trying to maintain friendly relations with the government. The media exert a strong influence on public opinion. Censorship in Turkey is also an issue, and in the 2000s Turkey has seen many journalists arrested and writers prosecuted. On Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index it has fallen from being ranked around 100 in 2005 to around 150 in 2013.
Milliyet is a major pro-government Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.
ATV is a nationwide TV channel in Turkey that began broadcasting in September 1993. ATV is an acronym of Actual Television. As of August 2013, ATV is Turkey's 5th popular channel with a market share of 6.71%.
Hürriyet is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948. As of January 2018, it had the highest circulation of any newspaper in Turkey at around 319,000. Hürriyet has a mainstream, liberal and conservative outlook. Hürriyet's editorial line may be considered middle-market, combining entertainment value with comprehensive news coverage and a strong cadre of columnists.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961. The paper was bought by the Doğan Media Group in 2001 and has been under the media group's flagship Hürriyet from 2006; both papers were sold to Demirören Holdings in 2018.
Yeni Şafak is a conservative Turkish daily newspaper. The newspaper is known for its hardline support of president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and the AK Parti and has a very close relationship with the Turkish government. It, together with other media organizations in Turkey, has been accused of using hate speech to target minorities and opposition groups.
Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation, the latter taking precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 of the Constitution of Turkey.
Fatih Altaylı is a Turkish journalist, columnist, television presenter and media executive.
Özgür Gündem was an Istanbul-based daily newspaper in Turkish language that was mainly read by people of Kurdish origin. Launched in May 1992, the newspaper was known for its extensive reporting on the Kurdish-Turkish conflict, and was therefore regularly accused of making propaganda for the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Its editors and staff have frequently been arrested and tried and resulted in multiple publication bans within Turkey. Since April 1994, the publication continued under different names until Özgür Gündem was relaunched on 14 April 2011.
Ciner Media Group is a Turkish media conglomerate established in 2007, part of the Ciner Holding conglomerate. Among other properties it owns the Habertürk newspaper, Habertürk TV and Habertürk Radyo, and the television stations Show TV, Show Türk and ShowMax TV. It co-owns the television station Bloomberg HT. It also publishes a range of magazines, including Turkish editions of international magazines such as FHM.
Berat Albayrak is a Turkish businessman and politician. He is the former CEO of Çalık Holding; a former MP; former Minister of Energy and Natural Resources; and current Minister of Finance and Treasury. He is the son-in-law of the President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
Takvim is a Turkish daily newspaper.
Akşam (Evening) is a Turkish newspaper founded in 1918, owned by Ethem Sancak's TürkMedya Grup since 2013. In 2013 it had a circulation of around 100,000.
The 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey saw massive amounts of censorship and disinformation by the mainstream media, especially by those supporting Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his Justice and Development Party (AKP). A poll done by Istanbul Bilgi University in the first week of the protests showed that 84% of the demonstrators cited the lack of media coverage as a reason to join the protests, higher than the 56% of protesters who referred to the destruction of Gezi Park.
Media ownership in Turkey is highly concentrated. According to experts, Turkish media ownership structure prevents citizens from receiving reliable information.
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