|Fate||Sold to Lockheed Corporation, now part of BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions|
|Headquarters||Nashua, New Hampshire, United States|
|Products||Computer terminals, printed circuits|
Sanders Associates was a defense contractor in Nashua, New Hampshire, United States, from 1951 until it was sold in 1986. It is now part of BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions, a subsidiary of BAE Systems. It concentrated on developing and manufacturing electronic systems, notably aircraft self-protection systems, and tactical surveillance and intelligence systems. Other business areas included microwave, missile and space electronics; infrared imaging; and automated mission planning systems, with both military and commercial applications.
Nashua is a city in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census, Nashua had a population of 86,494, making it the second-largest city in the state after Manchester. As of 2017 the population had risen to an estimated 88,341.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company. Its headquarters are in London in the United Kingdom with operations worldwide. It is the largest defence contractor in Europe and among the world's largest defence companies; it was ranked as the third-largest based on applicable 2017 revenues. Its largest operations are in the United Kingdom and United States, where its BAE Systems Inc. subsidiary is one of the six largest suppliers to the US Department of Defense. Other major markets include Australia, India, and Saudi Arabia, which account for about 20% of BAE's overall sales. It is the biggest manufacturer in Britain. The company was formed on 30 November 1999 by the £7.7 billion merger of two British companies: Marconi Electronic Systems (MES) – the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc (GEC) – and British Aerospace (BAe) – an aircraft, munitions and naval systems manufacturer.
The first home video game console was developed as a side project by engineer Ralph H. Baer and several assistants at Sanders. The production of the final product was granted to Magnavox, a home electronics company, and sold under the name Magnavox Odyssey.
A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.
Ralph Henry Baer was a German inventor, game developer, and engineer.
Magnavox is an American electronics company founded in the United States. Since 1974 it is a subsidiary of Dutch electronics corporation Philips.
The company was founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in July 1951, formed by eleven engineers and scientists from Raytheon. It was named for Royden C. Sanders, Jr., one of the original eleven associates. It moved its operations to Nashua in 1952, taking up a vacant mill building and restoring economic vitality to a city that had been devastated by the post-World War II departure of the textile industry from New England to the lower-cost American South.
Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, and was an early center for the labor movement as well as a major contributor to the American Industrial Revolution. The original home of the Boston Manufacturing Company, the city was a prototype for 19th century industrial city planning, spawning what became known as the Waltham-Lowell system of labor and production. The city is now a center for research and higher education, home to Brandeis University and Bentley University. The population was 60,636 at the census in 2010.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Sanders Associates was one of the premier flexible printed circuit manufacturers during the 1960s and 1970s. It specialized in complex flexible circuit assemblies and specialized printed wiring boards for both the U.S. military and space programs including the Saturn V and Lunar Excursion Module. Sanders also produced flexible circuity for most other commercial applications including medical equipment. Sanders Flexprint division was involved with producing printed wiring boards and flex circuitry for all branches of the military and for all platforms. The Flexprint division was sold in the late seventies or early eighties.
Most divisions of Sanders Associates competed in the government marketplace. One division marketed intelligent terminals to the commercial marketplace. These intelligent terminals competed against IBM 3270 terminals, Honeywell terminals, Univac Uniscope terminals and Burroughs Corporation terminals. Terminals provided data entry capability into mainframes as well as light pen pointing and selection before the mouse was in use. The last Sanders Intelligent terminal system marketed was the 814 terminal controller that supported up to eight terminals. That division was acquired by Harris Corporation in the late 1970s and integrated with their Data Communications Division. For a short time, the Nashua plant facilities were shared between Sanders and Harris, eventually the Harris division was moved to a new facility in Dallas, Texas.
The IBM 3270 is a class of block oriented computer terminals introduced by IBM in 1971 normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. The 3270 was the successor to the IBM 2260 display terminal. Due to the text colour on the original models, these terminals are informally known as green screen terminals. Unlike a character-oriented terminal, the 3270 minimizes the number of I/O interrupts required by transferring large blocks of data known as data streams, and uses a high speed proprietary communications interface, using coaxial cable.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that makes a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments. The company operates four business units, known as Strategic Business Units – Honeywell Aerospace, Home and Building Technologies (HBT), Safety and Productivity Solutions (SPS), and Honeywell Performance Materials and Technologies.
Uniscope was a class of computer terminals made by Sperry Rand Corporation, Univac Division, and successors since 1964 that were normally used to communicate with Univac mainframes. As such, it was the successor to various models of Teletype. Due to the text color on the original models, these terminals are informally known as green screen terminals.
In 1986, Sanders Associates was bought by Lockheed Corporation and became Sanders, A Lockheed Company. Following the Lockheed/Martin Marietta merger in 1995, Sanders was merged into Lockheed Martin Aerospace Electronic Systems. In July 2000 Lockheed announced the sale of this group to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion. The company became BAE Systems Information & Electronic Warfare Systems (IEWS). In 2005 this was merged into the newly created BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1926 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995. The founder, Allan Lockheed, had earlier founded the similarly named but otherwise unrelated Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, which was operational from 1912 through 1920.
The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American Marietta Corporation. The combined company became a leader in chemicals, aerospace, and electronics. In 1995, it merged with Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin.
The first home video game console was developed at Sanders by a team headed by Ralph Baer in 1966. It became the Magnavox Odyssey.
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console. It was developed by a small team led by Ralph H. Baer at Sanders Associates and released by Magnavox in the United States in September 1972 and overseas the following year. The Odyssey consists of a white, black, and brown box which connects to a television set, and two rectangular controllers attached by wires. It is capable of displaying three square dots on the screen in monochrome black and white, with differing behavior for the dots depending on the game played, and with no sound capabilities. Players place plastic overlays on the screen to create visuals, and the one or two players for each game control their dots with the three knobs and one button on the controller in accordance with the rules given for the game. The Odyssey console came packaged with dice, paper money, and other board game paraphernalia to go along with the games, and a peripheral controller—the first video game light gun—was sold separately.
The Magnavox Odyssey², also known as Philips Odyssey², is a second generation home video game console released in 1978. It was sold in Europe as the Philips Videopac G7000, in Brazil as the Philips Odyssey and in Japan as Odyssey2. Odyssey² was one of the major three home consoles prior to the 1983 video game market crash, along with Atari 2600 and IntelliVision.
Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics. The game was originally manufactured by Atari, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey; Magnavox later sued Atari for patent infringement. Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney were surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work and decided to manufacture the game.
Marconi Electronic Systems (MES), or GEC-Marconi as it was until 1998, was the defence arm of The General Electric Company (GEC). It was demerged from GEC and acquired by British Aerospace (BAe) on 30 November 1999 to form BAE Systems. GEC then renamed itself Marconi plc.
Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in North Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs approximately 100,000 people worldwide as of December 2017.
The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company. The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft, and the AIM-4 Falcon guided missile.
Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS) was a major European integrated defence electronics company and an equal shares joint venture between BAE Systems and Finmeccanica until its dissolution on 3 May 2005.
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987. It was derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes, mergers and acquisitions. The company was founded by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi and began as the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. The company was a pioneer of wireless long distance communication and mass media broadcasting, eventually becoming one of the UK's most successful manufacturing companies. In 1999, its defence manufacturing division, Marconi Electronic Systems, merged with British Aerospace to form BAE Systems. In 2006, extreme financial difficulties led to the collapse of the remaining company, with the bulk of the business acquired by the Swedish telecommunications company, Ericsson.
BAE Systems Inc. is the wholly owned U.S. subsidiary of the British defence, security, and aerospace company BAE Systems plc, the world's second biggest defense company. The American unit employs approximately 30,000 workers within U.S. borders and several thousand more in Israel, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Major business lines of BAE Systems Inc. include electronic warfare, sensing and communications equipment; armored vehicles, artillery systems; naval guns and naval ship repair; and cybersecurity and intelligence services.
Tracor was a major North American defense electronics contractor which was acquired by Marconi Electronic Systems (MES), a subsidiary of General Electric Company plc, in 1998. Following the purchase of MES by British Aerospace in November 1999 to form BAE Systems, Tracor became BAE Systems Integrated Defense Solutions. Following a 2005 reorganisation, the company became BAE Systems Sensor Integration, part of Electronics and Integrated Solutions.
BAE Systems Electronic Systems (ES) is one of three operating groups of BAE Systems Inc., the North American subsidiary of the British global defence contractor BAE Systems Plc.
The first generation of video game consoles officially began in 1972 with the first home video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, and lasted until 1977, when pong-style console manufacturers left the market en masse due to the video game crash of 1977; also, microprocessor-based consoles were introduced. In Japan, the generation continued until 1980, with the Color TV-Game series.
Hazeltine Corporation was a defense electronics company which is now part of BAE Systems Inc.
Lear Siegler Incorporated (LSI) is a diverse American corporation established in 1962. Its products range from car seats and brakes to weapons control systems for military fighter planes. The company's more than $2 billion-a-year annual sales comes from three major areas: aerospace-technology, automotive parts, and industrial-commercial. The company, however, is basically anonymous, since its products are either unmarked or bear only the label “LSI”. But Lear Siegler, which went private in 1987, is an influential part of the manufacturing industry in the United States. Unlike Lear, LSI does not produce executive jets that bear the “Lear” name.
CMC Electronics Inc. is a Canadian electronics company and part of Esterline Corporation's Avionics & Controls business segment. The company's principal manufacturing facility is located in Montreal, Quebec, with additional facilities located in Ottawa, Ontario and Sugar Grove, Illinois.
Fairchild Systems was a United States defense contractor which is now part of BAE Systems Electronics, Intelligence & Support. A descendant of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, the San Francisco Chronicle described Fairchild Systems as "one of the legendary names of Silicon Valley" and that in "the late 1960s, [its] Bay Area operations were the training ground for the engineers who went on to found Intel and other top semiconductor companies."
The Magnavox Odyssey is a general brand name of the company's complete line of home video game consoles released from 1972 through 1978. The line includes the original Magnavox Odyssey console, both Magnavox and Philips versions of the Odyssey series of dedicated video game consoles, and the Magnavox Odyssey² cartridge-based video game console released in 1978.
The Philips/Magnavox VideoWRITER was a standalone fixed-application electronic typewriter / word processing machine produced by Philips Home Interactive Systems, a division of the Dutch electronics company Philips. It included a CRT amber screen with a wide aspect ratio, a black and white thermal transfer printer, a 3.5" floppy drive for saving documents, and dedicated computing hardware, all enclosed in a single case. The keyboard was separate and a custom design whose unusual features included a style key and not just an undo key but also a do key. With its dedicated word processing firmware, the VideoWRITER was not a freely programmable computer but a typewriter replacement appliance. It was not a lap-top machine but was designed to be transportable in either a cloth or hard plastic carry case accessory.