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A sawn-off shotgun (also called a sawed-off shotgun, short-barreled shotgun, shorty or a boom stick) is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel —typically under 18 inches (46 cm)—and often a shortened or absent stock. Despite the colloquial term, barrels do not, strictly speaking, have to be shortened with a saw. Barrels can be manufactured at shorter lengths as an alternative to traditional, longer barrels. This makes them easier to transport due to their smaller profile and lighter weight. The design also makes the weapon easy to maneuver in cramped spaces, a feature sought by military close-quarters combat units, law enforcement SWAT team users, and home-defense purposes. As a result of the shorter barrel length, any sawed-off shotgun with a magazine tube will have its capacity reduced.
In the 1930s, the United States, Britain and Canada mandated that a permit be required to own these firearms.They are subject to legal restrictions depending upon jurisdiction. They are used by military forces and police agencies worldwide.
Compared to a standard shotgun, the sawn-off shotgun has a shorter effective range, due to a lower muzzle velocity; however, its reduced length makes it easier to maneuver and conceal. Powerful and compact, the weapon is especially suitable for use in small spaces, such as close-quarters combat in a military context. Military vehicle crews use short-barreled combat shotguns as ancillary weapons. In urban combat zones, military entry teams often use entry shotguns when breaching and entering doorways.
Many jurisdictions have a minimum legal length for shotgun barrels 1 "making" form, and purchase and have approved the US$200 tax stamp for the shotgun in question, in order to legally reduce its barrel length to less than 18 inches by cutting the barrel or replacing it with a shorter one.to make these more concealable shotguns unavailable for criminal purposes. Many gun makers in the U.S. have not offered sawed-off shotguns to the public since 1934, when shotguns with barrel lengths of under 18 inches were restricted, although they had previously been sold. To abide by NFA regulations, anyone may complete a Form
A sawed-off shotgun is often an unofficial modification of a standard shotgun. In countries where handguns are more costly or difficult to obtain, criminals can convert legally purchased or stolen shotguns into concealable weapons.
The term is often applied to illegal weapons that are created by cutting off the barrel of a standard shotgun. The barrel of a shotgun without a tube magazine can be cut to any length; pump-action or semi-automatic shotguns usually have a tube magazine attached to the underside of the barrel which limits the practical minimum barrel length to about the length of the magazine tube, unless it also is modified, technically much more challenging than shortening the barrel. Repeating-fire shotguns with box magazines do not lose shell capacity when sawed off, but they are far less common than those with tubular magazines. Shotguns manufactured with barrels under the legal minimum length frequently fall into special categories.
Many nations have placed legal restrictions on sawed-off shotguns. The following are the restrictions for specific nations. Although not listed here, they are also subject to laws governing guns in general.
In the state of Victoria a shotgun may not have its barrel shortened so as to change the category under which that shotgun would be classified. In some states, any alteration to the length of the barrel requires permission from the Chief Commissioner of Police.
Short-barreled, manually operated shotguns (non-semi-automatics) are non-restricted as long as the barrel remains unmodified from the original factory length. There is no legal minimum for shotgun barrels as long as they are not handguns; shotguns with barrels as short as 8.5 inches are available in Canada.
The act of reducing the length of the barrel of a shotgun to less than 457 mm (18 inches) by sawing, cutting, or "otherwise", by anyone other than a recognized gun manufacturer, is prohibited.
Short-barreled shotguns are universally category B weapons and therefore require a shall issue permit and Gun license (zbrojní průkaz), including the self defense category.
In Germany, the possession of a sawed-off shotgun is legal with a firearms license (Waffenbesitzkarte), just like any other firearm. Restrictions only apply to pump-action shotguns, which require a minimum barrel length of 45 cm and a minimum overall length of 90 cm to be legal. Other shotguns may be of any length. If the barrel length is less than 30 cm or the overall length is less than 60 cm, the firearm is considered a handgun, and treated accordingly under the law.
Shortening the barrel of a shotgun or rifle results in a presumptive five-year minimum sentence of imprisonment upon conviction for a first offence, and a mandatory five-year sentence for second or subsequent offences.
Within the United Kingdom, side-by-side, over-under, bolt-action and lever-action shotguns are required to conform to the specification of a 24-inch minimum barrel length if held on a shotgun certificate. If held on a firearms certificate, the applicant having demonstrated 'good reason' for possession, they must comply with the standard configuration of 12-inch minimum barrel length, 24-inch minimum overall length, in common with other Section 1 firearms.
Shotguns held on a shotgun certificate must either have no magazine, or a non-removable magazine capable of holding no more than two rounds. Shotguns held on firearms certificates are not subject to any magazine restrictions.
Semi-automatic and pump-action shotguns, whether held on shotgun or firearms certificates, are always required to comply with the specification of 24-inch minimum barrel length, 40-inch minimum overall length.
Muzzleloading firearms held on firearms certificates are exempt from any restrictions on barrel and overall length. A smoothbore muzzleloader held on a shotgun certificate would be subject to the standard 24-inch minimum barrel length specification.
Under the National Firearms Act (NFA), it is illegal for a private citizen to possess a sawed-off modern smokeless powder shotgun (a shotgun with a barrel length shorter than 18 inches (46 cm) or a minimum overall length of the weapon, total, including the 18-inch minimum barrel, of under 26 inches (66 cm)) (under U.S.C. Title II), without a tax-paid registration from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, requiring a background check and either a $200 or $5 tax for every transfer, depending upon the specific manufacturing circumstances of the particular sawed-off modern shotgun being transferred. Gun trusts have become an increasingly popular means of registering SBSs with the BATFE. Short-barreled muzzleloading blackpowder shotguns are not illegal under federal law, and require no tax-stamped permit, although they may be illegal under state law. As with all NFA regulated firearms, a new tax stamp must be purchased before every transfer. Inter-state transfers must be facilitated through a Federal Firearms Licensee (FFL) while intrastate transfers may be between two persons.
In the US, shotguns originally manufactured without shoulder stocks (and thus not legally shotguns), with a total length under 26 inches, are classified as an "Any Other Weapon" by the BATFE and have a $5 transfer tax, if they are manufactured by a maker possessing the appropriate Class 2 Special Occupational Taxpayer Federal Firearms License. In order to convert an existing shoulder-stocked shotgun to a short-barreled shotgun or an existing pistol-grip-only shotgun to an "Any Other Weapon", a private citizen must pay the standard $200 NFA tax.
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Additional restrictions might apply in many other jurisdictions. State and local laws might entirely prohibit civilian possession of short-barrelled shotguns. In addition, some firearm types that would normally be considered to fall into the Short Barrel Shotgun (SBS) category might not legally be considered to be a SBS. A shotgun is legally defined as a shoulder-mounted firearm that fires shot. Shotguns and shotgun receivers that have never had a buttstock of any type installed are not shotguns, as they cannot be shoulder mounted. Therefore, cutting one of these below the 18" barrel and/or 26" overall length cannot produce a SBS as the firearm was never a shotgun. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives recognizes these firearms as being a smooth bore handgun which is an Any Other Weapon (AOW). Unlike an SBS, an AOW only carries a $5.00 tax and can be moved interstate without Federal approval. To maintain its AOW status, it must not have a buttstock (making it a SBS) or a rifled slug barrel (making it a Destructive Device (DD) if the bore is over 0.5"). Firearms of this type are typically over 100 years old. These weapons produced with a barrel length under 18" are not considered sawed-off shotguns because they were not produced with a shoulder buttstock. Weapons with these specifications fall under the category of smooth bore handguns produced in heavy rifle calibers and 12/20 gauge shotgun calibers, contrary to illegal sawn-off shotguns and are not considered destructive devices. Any firearms capable of shooting shotgun style cartridges produced after the 18" minimum barrel restrictions were set into place are considered illegal sawed-off shotguns.
Historical military use of sawed-off shotguns includes use as a primary weapon for Confederate cavalry during the American Civil War. These muzzle-loaded weapons were used primarily for close-range combat and to supplement the availability of more traditional short-ranged weapons such as the saber or carbine. The availability of the source weapons and the ability to use single ball, shot, or a mix of both as the situation required were reasons why they were initially desired by those establishing Confederate cavalry units. They were replaced over time as more conventional arms became available and as the tactical use of cavalry shifted towards use as mounted infantry.
In modern usage, minimum length and barrel length restrictions only apply to civilian use; military and police departments may issue short-barreled shotguns, and major manufacturers offer special models with barrels in the range of 10 to 14 inches (25 to 36 cm) as riot shotguns or combat shotguns for use in areas with restricted space. These are generally referred to as "entry shotguns", because they are often used for forcing entry into buildings, where the short easy handling is more important than the increased ammunition capacity of a longer shotgun. Breaching rounds provide another use for very short shotguns. These rounds are usually made of sintered powdered metal, but a normal buckshot or bird shot round will also work. A shotgun is used for breaching by placing the gun next to a door lock (0 to 2 inches away, 0 to 5 cm), and firing at a 45 degrees downward angle through the door between the lock or latch and the door frame. The impact of the projectile(s) opens a hole through the door, removing the latch or locking bolt. When through the door, the shot or sintered metal disperses quickly, and because it was aimed downwards, the risk of harming occupants on the other side of the breached door is minimized. Breaching guns used by police and the military may have barrels as short as 10 inches (25 cm), and they often have only a pistol grip rather than a full butt stock. Some models use a special cup-like muzzle extension to further minimize the risk of debris injuring the shooter. Because few rounds are fired, any sporting shotgun with a 3-round capacity could be shortened and used as a capable breaching shotgun.
It is a common misconception that shortening the length of a shotgun barrel itself significantly affects the pattern or spread of the pellets; this only becomes true when the barrel is reduced to less than 50% of a typical length.A standard-length barrel (e.g., 28 inches) is this long to move the center of gravity of the weapon away from the body and give it an ergonomic heft, and in order for the barrel to extend out into the shooter's field of vision right up to the target, as well as to make the weapon safer, as it is difficult to inadvertently point a long gun at one's own body. The pattern is primarily affected by the type of cartridge fired and the choke, or constriction normally found at the muzzle of a shotgun barrel.
The primary reason that the pattern is altered is because cutting off the end of the barrel removes the choke, which generally only extends about two inches (5 cm) inward from the muzzle. This results in a cylinder bore, which causes the widest spread generally found in shotgun barrels. (See choke for more information on the impact of chokes. See shotgun shell for information on spreader loads.) See details on shot patterning. However, many qualified gunsmiths can re-tap and reinstall the choke in the shortened barrel.
A sawn-off shotgun with exposed, manually cocked hammers and dual triggers is known as a lupara ("wolf-shot") in Italy and, while associated with organized crime, was originally used by Sicilian farmers and shepherds to protect their vineyards and flocks of animals.In rural areas of North India, where it is seen as a weapon of authority and prestige, it is known as a dunali, literally meaning "two pipes". It is especially common in Bihar, Purvanchal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
The light weight of short-barreled shotguns, particularly in configurations that lack substantial stocks, leads some users to use short 'minishells' with lower shot and powder loading for comfortable casual use.
In the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, where handguns are not easily obtainable, the sawn-off shotgun was a common weapon in armed robberies during and shortly after the 1960s, and it is this use that most people associate with the weapon.
The bank robber Clyde Barrow modified his Browning A-5 shotgun by cutting the barrel down to the same length as the magazine tube, and shortening the stock by 5 to 6 inches (125 to 150 mm) to make it more concealable. A small, 10–12-inch (250–300 mm) strap was attached to both ends of the butt of the gun, and was looped around his shoulder, concealing the gun between his arm and chest under his jacket in the manner of a shoulder holster. The gun was drawn up quickly and fired from the shoulder under which it was carried. Barrow dubbed it the "Whippit", as he was able to "whip it" out easily.
A carbine is a long-barreled firearm with a shorter barrel than a standard rifle or musket. Most carbines are shortened versions of full-length rifles, shooting the same type of ammunition, while others fire generally lower-powered ammunition, including types designed for pistols.
A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than most other types. In small arms, a long gun is generally designed to be held by both hands and braced against the shoulder, in contrast to a handgun, which can be fired being held with a single hand. In the context of cannons and mounted firearms, an artillery long gun would be contrasted with a howitzer or carronade.
A shotgun is a long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small spherical pellet-like sub-projectiles called shots, or sometimes a single solid projectile called slug. Shotguns are most commonly smoothbore firearms, meaning that their gun barrels have no riflings on the inner wall, but rifled barrels for shooting slugs are also available.
The National Firearms Act (NFA), 73rd Congress, Sess. 2, ch. 757, 48 Stat. 1236, enacted on June 26, 1934, and currently codified and amended as I.R.C. ch. 53, is an Act of Congress in the United States that, in general, imposes an excise tax on the manufacture and transfer of certain firearms and mandates the registration of those firearms. The NFA is also referred to as Title II of the federal firearms laws, with the Gun Control Act of 1968 ("GCA") is Title I.
The blunderbuss is a firearm with a short, large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity or caliber. The blunderbuss is commonly considered to be an early predecessor of the modern shotgun, with similar military and defensive use. It was effective only at short range, lacking accuracy at long distances. A blunderbuss in handgun form was called a dragon, and it is from this that the term dragoon evolved.
In the United Kingdom, access by the general public to firearms is subject to some of the strictest control measures in the world. Laws differ and are generally less restrictive in Northern Ireland. Concerns have been raised over the availability of illegal firearms.
Mossberg 500 is a series of pump action shotguns manufactured by O.F. Mossberg & Sons. The 500 series comprises widely varying models of hammerless repeaters, all of which share the same basic receiver and action, but differ in bore size, barrel length, choke options, magazine capacity, stock and forearm materials. Model numbers included in the 500 series are the 500, 505, 510, 535, and 590.
A combat shotgun is a shotgun that is intended to be used in armed conflicts, typically by a military force. The earliest shotguns specifically designed for combat were the trench guns or trench shotguns issued in World War I. While limited in range, the multiple projectiles typically used in a shotgun shell provide increased hit probability unmatched by other small arms.
The .410 bore, is the smallest caliber of shotgun shell commonly available. A .410 bore shotgun loaded with shot shells is well suited for small game hunting and pest control. The .410 started off in the UK as a garden gun along with the .360 and the No.3, No.2 and No.1 bore rimfires. .410 shells have similar base dimensions to the .45 Colt cartridge, allowing many single-shot firearms, as well as some derringers chambered in that caliber, to fire .410 shot shells without any modifications.
United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939), was a landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that involved a Second Amendment challenge to the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA).
A riot shotgun is a shotgun designed or modified for use as a primarily defensive weapon, by the use of a short barrel and sometimes a larger magazine capacity than shotguns marketed for hunting. The riot shotgun is used by military personnel for guard duty and was at one time used for riot control, and is commonly used as a door breaching and patrol weapon by law enforcement personnel, as well as a home defense weapon by civilians. Guns of this type are often labeled as breaching shotguns, tactical shotguns or special-purpose shotguns to denote the larger scope of their use; however, these are largely marketing terms.
Firearm modification is commonly done in order to enhance various aspects of the performance of a firearm. Reasons for these modifications can range from cosmetic to functional, and can be simple operations that the owner can perform, or complex operations requiring the services of a gunsmith.
The Auto & Burglar Gun was a US-made factory-built handgun that was commercially manufactured by configuring a standard double-barrel shotgun with a pistol grip, at first engraving and later stamping "Auto & Burglar Gun" on each side of the frame, and shortening the barrels to about 10" to 12.2" in length.
Short-barreled rifle (SBR) is a legal designation in the United States, referring to a shoulder-fired, rifled firearm, made from a rifle, with a barrel length of less than 16 in (41 cm) or overall length of less than 26 in (66 cm), or a handgun fitted with a buttstock and a barrel of less than 16 inches length. In the United States, an SBR is an item regulated by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) as a Title II weapon. In the absence of local laws prohibiting ownership, American civilians may own an SBR provided it is registered with the ATF, and a $200 tax is paid prior to taking possession of or creating the firearm.
An antique firearm is a term to describe a firearm that was designed and manufactured prior to the beginning of the 20th century. Although the exact definition of what constitutes an "antique firearm" varies between countries, the advent of smokeless powder or the start of the Boer War are often used as cut-off dates. Antique firearms are usually collected because of their historical interest and/or their monetary value.
The Mare's Leg is the name given to a customized shortened rifle used by Steve McQueen's character on the television series Wanted: Dead or Alive (1958–1961). McQueen's character was named Josh Randall, and the gun has also been referred to as a Winchester Randall, or a Randall Special. Mare's Leg is now a generic term for a Winchester Model 1892 with a shortened barrel and stock.
Title II weapons, or NFA firearms, are designations of certain weapons under the United States National Firearms Act (NFA).
The Marble Game Getter is a light, double-barrel (over-under), combination gun manufactured by the Marble's Arms & Manufacturing Company in Gladstone, Michigan. The firearm features a skeleton folding stock and a rifle barrel over a smooth-bore shotgun barrel. A manually pivoted hammer striker is used to select the upper or lower barrel. Three generations of the system were/are produced—First Generation, Second Generation and the Third Generation currently manufactured by Marble Arms.
Gun control in Italy incorporates the political and regulatory aspects of firearms usage in the country within the framework of the European Union's Firearm Directive. Different types of gun licenses can be obtained from the national police authorities. According to a 2007 study by The Small Arms Survey Project, the per capita gun ownership rate in Italy is around 12% with an estimated 7 million registered firearms in circulation.
Origin-12 is a semi-automatic magazine-fed combat/tactical shotgun, developed by Fostech Outdoors. It has been heralded as the fastest semi-auto shotgun on the planet. The adjustable gas system allows reliable cycling from low brass shells to high brass magnum shells.