|Full name||Sidney Frumkin|
|Nickname(s)||El Torero de la Torah|
|Born||July 11, 1903|
Brooklyn, New York, United States
|Died||April 26, 1976 72) (aged|
New York City, United States
|Début novillero||27 July 1923|
|Alternativa||18 June 1967|
Sidney Franklin (11 July 1903 – 26 April 1976, born Sidney Frumkin) was the first American to become a successful matador, the most senior level of bullfighter.
A bullfighter is a performer in the art of bullfighting. "Torero" or "toureiro" are the Spanish and Portuguese words for bullfighter and describe all the performers in the sport of bullfighting as practised in Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Peru, France, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and other countries influenced by Portuguese and Spanish culture. The main performer and leader of the entourage in a bullfight, and who finally kills the bull, is addressed as maestro (master), or with the formal title matador de toros. The other bullfighters in the entourage are called subalternos and their suits are embroidered in silver as opposed to the matador's more-theatrical gold. They include the picadores, rejoneadores, and banderilleros.
Sidney Franklin was born in Brooklyn, New York to Orthodox Jewish parents.In 1922 he traveled to Mexico City, where he would begin a career in bullfighting. He fought bulls in Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Colombia and Panama.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in North America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Brazil and Venezuela, and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.
Writing in Death in the Afternoon on Sidney Franklin, Ernest Hemingway said, "Franklin is brave with a cold, serene and intelligent valor but instead of being awkward and ignorant he is one of the most skillful, graceful and slow manipulators of a cape fighting today. His repertoire with the cape is enormous but he does not attempt by a varied repertoire to escape from the performance of the veronica as the base of his cape work and his veronicas are classical, very emotional, and beautifully timed and executed. You will find no Spaniard who ever saw him fight who will deny his artistry and excellence with the cape.” And later Hemingway adds, “He is a better, more scientific, more intelligent, and more finished matador than all but about six of the full matadors in Spain today and the bullfighters know it and have the utmost respect for him."
Death in the Afternoon is a non-fiction book written by Ernest Hemingway about the ceremony and traditions of Spanish bullfighting, published in 1932. The book provides a look at the history and what Hemingway considers the magnificence of bullfighting. It also contains a deeper contemplation on the nature of fear and courage. While essentially a guide book, there are three main sections: Hemingway's work, pictures, and a glossary of terms.
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short-story collections, and two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature.
Franklin appeared in a few films in the USA and Mexico. Later he presented bullfights on American TV. He wrote an autobiography, Bullfighter from Brooklyn and he also was a close friend of the American actor and legend James Dean, who was a big fan of the art of bullfighting.
James Byron Dean was an American actor from Indiana. He is remembered as a cultural icon of teenage disillusionment and social estrangement, as expressed in the title of his most celebrated film, Rebel Without a Cause (1955), in which he starred as troubled teenager Jim Stark. The other two roles that defined his stardom were loner Cal Trask in East of Eden (1955) and surly ranch hand Jett Rink in Giant (1956).
He died of natural causes at his home.He was gay; his sexual identity was an open secret among those who knew him, but remained unknown to the public.
According to A. E. Hotchner, "Lillian Ross's career with The New Yorker was founded on the success of her profile of the bullfighter Sidney Franklin." – Papa Hemingway, A. E. Hotchner, 1955.
Aaron Edward Hotchner is an American editor, novelist, playwright, and biographer. He has written many television screenplays as well as a biography of Ernest Hemingway. He co-founded, with Paul Newman, the charity food company Newman's Own.
Lillian Ross was an American journalist and author, who was a staff writer at The New Yorker for seven decades, beginning in 1945. Her novelistic reporting and writing style, shown in early stories about Ernest Hemingway and John Huston, are widely understood as a primary influence on what would later be called "literary journalism" or "new journalism."
The New Yorker is an American magazine featuring journalism, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry. Started as a weekly in 1925, the magazine is now published 47 times annually, with five of these issues covering two-week spans. Although its reviews and events listings often focus on the cultural life of New York City, The New Yorker has a wide audience outside New York and is read internationally. It is well known for its illustrated and often topical covers, its commentaries on popular culture and eccentric Americana, its attention to modern fiction by the inclusion of short stories and literary reviews, its rigorous fact checking and copy editing, its journalism on politics and social issues, and its single-panel cartoons sprinkled throughout each issue.
Juan Belmonte García was a Spanish bullfighter.
Pedro Romero Martínez was a legendary bullfighter from the Romero family in Ronda, Spain.
Francisco Romero (1700–1763) was a significant Spanish matador. He reputedly introduced the famous red cape (muleta) into bullfighting in around 1726.
Concepción Cintrón Verrill, also known as Conchita Cintrón or La Diosa de Oro, was a Chile-born Peruvian torera, perhaps the most famous in the history of bullfighting. In the ring Cintrón was said to display particular grace, style and bravado, a combination known as duende.
Blood and Sand (1941) is a romantic melodrama Technicolor film directed by Rouben Mamoulian, produced by 20th Century Fox, and starring Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Rita Hayworth, and Alla Nazimova. It is based on the 1908 Spanish novel which was critical of bullfighting, Blood and Sand, by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez. The supporting cast features Anthony Quinn, Lynn Bari, Laird Cregar, J. Carrol Naish, John Carradine and George Reeves.
El Fandi is statistically one of the most skilled matadors in the world. Currently, he is ranked number one among all bullfighters in Spain.
Ignacio Sánchez Mejías was a famous Spanish bullfighter. .He was also a writer. He enjoyed enormous popularity — he was attractive to women, admired by men, and a sympathetic personality to artists, especially those of the Generación del 27.
Spanish-style bullfighting, known as a corrida de toros, tauromaquia or fiesta, is practiced in Spain, where it originates, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, as well as in parts of Southern France and Portugal. In a traditional corrida, three toreros, also called matadores or, in French, toréadors, each fight two out of a total of six fighting bulls, each of which is at least four years old and weighs up to about 600 kg (1,300 lb). Bullfighting season in Spain runs from March to October.
Portuguese-style bullfighting differs in many aspects from Spanish-style bullfighting. The cavaleiros and the forcados are unique as well as the horsewomen (cavaleiras).
Julián López Escobar, commonly known as El Juli, is a Spanish bullfighter.
Antonio Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez is a Spanish torero or 'bullfighter'.
Alexander Rupert Fiske-Harrison is an English author and journalist, broadcaster and conservationist. His writing is known for his immersion in his subject matter. He also trained and worked for some years as a Method actor.
Diego Mazquiarán, often called simply Fortuna, was a Spanish matador.
Michel Lagravere Peniche, better known as Michelito, is a French Mexican child bullfighter.
Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. There are many different forms and varieties in various locations around the world. Some forms involve dancing around or over a cow or bull, or attempting to grasp an object from the animal.
Barnaby Conrad, Jr. was an American artist, author, nightclub proprietor, bullfighter and boxer.
Domingo Ortega was a Spanish matador. Born Domingo López Ortega in Borox, Toledo, he was the son of a farmer, and grew up helping with farm work. During months when there was no work on the farm, he would travel to other towns selling garlic.
Ernest Carleton Bass, best-known as Carleton Bass, born 1876 in Ireland, was a notorious bullfighter who billed himself in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as the "first North American bullfighter." In reality, he was an Irish immigrant who never became an American citizen, and his anemic bullfighting skill led to him being booed from bullfighting rings in Mexico. Though he had learned some swordfighting and bullfighting skills in Spain before his arrival in the United States, he was a poor fighter. In 1903, he suffered an attack of nerves before a fight in Mexico and failed to fight. In 1904, he was a key figure in the St. Louis bullfight riot, which led to the destruction of a 14,000-seat arena by fire. Three days after the riot, he shot and killed fellow matador Don Manuel Cervera after the other man attacked Bass with a knife over a dispute regarding the bullfight canceled by the riot. A subsequent coroner's inquest found Bass acted in self-defense and should not be charged with murder. Following his acquittal, Bass went on to star in several bloodless bullfights. These involved enraging the bull, causing it to charge and miss, but not spearing it or cutting it with a sword.
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