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Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation, by Frances E. Lee and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, is a book that analyzes the behavior of US senators based on the size of the states that they represent.
It demonstrates that small-state senators are much more likely to engage in pork barrel politics than large-state senators and are much more likely to have leadership positions. Sizing Up the Senate also empirically demonstrates that small states receive more money per capita from the federal government by the spending formula for block grants.
It is a political science book, but its first chapter deals with the history of the creation of the Senate and argues that the Senate was created not by federalist theory but out of the refusal of small states to go along with the US Constitution unless they were granted equal suffrage in one body of the national legislature. Upon publication, it was awarded the D.B. Hardeman Prize for the best book on Congress.Since 1999, the book has grown in popularity and is well-known among congressional scholars, having been cited over 250 times in contemporary political science.
Since 2018, the authors' findings have been applied to a variety of issue topics in the mainstream media. CNN cited the book in an article concerning smaller states' influence of appointees to the Supreme Court of the United States.The Washington Post also used its findings in article addressing civility across the country.
Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation (1999). Frances E. Lee and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-47006-7
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress. Under Article One, Congress is a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Article One grants Congress various enumerated powers and the ability to pass laws "necessary and proper" to carry out those powers. Article One also establishes the procedures for passing a bill and places various limits on the powers of Congress and the states from abusing their powers.
The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a governor's appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators and 435 representatives, the latter defined by the Reapportionment Act of 1929. In addition, the House of Representatives has six non-voting members, bringing the total membership of the US Congress to 541 or fewer in the case of vacancies.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal", and therefore violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. However, the decision's 14 pages did not spell out any sort of method for ending racial segregation in schools, and the Court's second decision in Brown II only ordered states to desegregate "with all deliberate speed".
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William Paterson was a New Jersey statesman and a signer of the United States Constitution. He was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and the second governor of New Jersey.
Addison Mitchell McConnell Jr. is an American politician currently serving as Kentucky's senior United States senator and as Senate majority leader. McConnell is the second Kentuckian to serve as a party leader in the Senate, the longest-serving U.S. senator for Kentucky in history, and the longest-serving leader of U.S. Senate Republicans in history.
The Connecticut Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation of the states in the lower house or House of Representatives, but required the upper house or Senate to be weighted equally among the states. Each state would have two representatives in the upper house.
Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the electoral districts of state legislative chambers must be roughly equal in population. Along with Baker v. Carr (1962) and Wesberry v. Sanders (1964), it was part of a series of Warren Court cases that applied the principle of "one person, one vote" to U.S. legislative bodies.
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Michael Shumway Lee is an American politician, author and attorney who is the senior United States Senator from Utah. A conservative Republican, Lee has served in the Senate since January 3, 2011.
The D. B. Hardeman Prize is a cash prize awarded annually by the Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation for the best book that furthers the study of the U.S. Congress in the fields of biography, history, journalism, and political science. Submissions are judged on the basis of five criteria: (1) contribution to scholarship, (2) contribution to the public's understanding of Congress, (3) literary craftsmanship, (4) originality, and (5) depth of research. Members of the national selection committee are: Senator Tom Daschle; Lee Hamilton, Director of The Center on Congress; Thomas Mann of The Brookings Institution; Leslie Sanchez of Impacto Group; and Nancy Beck Young of The University of Houston.
Frances E. Lee is an American political scientist and a professor of politics and public affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. She previously taught at Case Western Reserve University and the University of Maryland, College Park. Lee specializes in American politics with particular interest focusing on the U.S. Congress and institutional behavior. Lee is co-editor of Legislative Studies Quarterly and is the first editor of Cambridge University's American Politics Elements Series. Her 2009 book Beyond Ideology was the first academic work to define the role of partisanship in voting behavior within the US Senate and has been cited since then over 400 times in contemporary political science. Lee is also a co-author of the seminal textbook on congressional study, Congress and Its Members, currently in its sixteenth edition.