A stipend is a regular fixed sum of money paid for services or to defray expenses, such as for scholarship, internship, or apprenticeship.  It is often distinct from an income or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed; instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried employment in order to undertake a role that is normally unpaid or voluntary, or which cannot be measured in terms of a task (e.g. members of the clergy).   A paid judge in an English magistrates' court was formerly termed a "stipendiary magistrate", as distinct from the unpaid "lay magistrates". In 2000, these were respectively renamed "district judge (magistrates courts)" and "magistrate".
Stipends are usually lower than would be expected as a permanent salary for similar work. This is because the stipend is complemented by other benefits such as accreditation, instruction, food, and/or accommodation.
Some graduate schools make stipend payments to help students have the time and funds to earn their academic degree (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees). Universities usually refer to money paid to graduate students as a stipend, rather than wages, to reflect complementary benefits.  
Stipends can be used to compensate interns at non-profit organizations, however they are discouraged to be used for volunteers as this may require that they be reported as employees and therefore tax paid on the stipend. This type of stipend is temporary and normally lasts for less than a year.  
In the Catholic Church, a Mass Stipend is a payment made by members of the church, which is generally nominal, to a priest for saying a Mass that is not part of his normal course of work.  It is considered simony to demand payment for a sacrament, and thus, stipends are seen as gifts. 
In the Church of England, a stipend refers to the salary of a stipendiary minister, one who receives payment directly from the diocese (as opposed to other forms of disbursement such as free use of a house in return for clerical duties, known as house-for-duty). A self-supporting minister (previously termed a non-stipendiary minister) is therefore one who is licensed to perform clerical duties but without receiving any kind of payment from the diocese, but non-stipendiary ministers often receive reimbursement of expenses incurred in pursuit of their duties such as travel, postage, and telephone costs. Non-stipendiary ministers normally depend on secular employment or pensions for their income and are often unavailable for pastoral duties when they are fulfilling their obligations to their employer.    
Stipends can erode employee–employer relationship when used to hire junior teaching/research staff with lower pay and worse working conditions. 
In Australia, stipends may act as a means to circumvent a Church or Volunteer organization's adherence and obligations under Australian Work Health and Safety (WHS) law which does not apply to volunteer associations, only to businesses which employ paid staff. 
An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time. Once confined to medical graduates, internship is used practice for a wide range of placements in businesses, non-profit organizations and government agencies. They are typically undertaken by students and graduates looking to gain relevant skills and experience in a particular field. Employers benefit from these placements because they often recruit employees from their best interns, who have known capabilities, thus saving time and money in the long run. Internships are usually arranged by third-party organizations that recruit interns on behalf of industry groups. Rules vary from country to country about when interns should be regarded as employees. The system can be open to exploitation by unscrupulous employers.
The German civil servants called Beamte or Beamtinnen have a privileged legal status compared to other German public employees, who are generally subject to the same laws and regulations as employees in the private sector. For example, the state can only fire Beamte if they commit a felony.
Employee benefits and benefits in kind include various types of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. Instances where an employee exchanges (cash) wages for some other form of benefit is generally referred to as a "salary packaging" or "salary exchange" arrangement. In most countries, most kinds of employee benefits are taxable to at least some degree. Examples of these benefits include: housing furnished or not, with or without free utilities; group insurance ; disability income protection; retirement benefits; daycare; tuition reimbursement; sick leave; vacation ; social security; profit sharing; employer student loan contributions; conveyancing; long service leave; domestic help (servants); and other specialized benefits.
Per diem or daily allowance is a specific amount of money that an organization gives an individual, typically an employee, per day to cover living expenses when travelling on the employer's business.
The Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) is the retirement system for employees within the United States civil service. FERS became effective January 1, 1987, to replace the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and to conform federal retirement plans in line with those in the private sector.
Compensation of employees (CE) is a statistical term used in national accounts, balance of payments statistics and sometimes in corporate accounts as well. It refers basically to the total gross (pre-tax) wages paid by employers to employees for work done in an accounting period, such as a quarter or a year.
A licensed lay minister (LLM) or lay reader is a person authorised by a bishop in the Anglican Communion, including the Free Church of England, to lead certain services of worship, to preach and to carry out pastoral and teaching functions. They are formally trained and admitted to the office, but they remain part of the laity, not of the clergy.
Stipendiary magistrates were magistrates that were paid for their work. They existed in the judiciaries of the United Kingdom and those of several former British territories, where they sat in the lowest-level criminal courts.
An honorarium is an ex gratia payment, i.e., a payment made, without the giver recognizing themselves as having any liability or legal obligation, to a person for his or her services in a volunteer capacity or for services for which fees are not traditionally required. It is a common remuneration practice in schools or sports clubs, for teachers and coaches. Another example includes the payment to guest speakers at a conference meeting to cover their travel, accommodation, or preparation time. Services for Christian Church funerals and/or memorial services are often paid by honorarium, as the minister, musicians, organist, soloist and others, out of care, do not have a set fee for services to grieving families. Likewise, wedding officiants are sometimes paid through honorarium. When required, honorariums may be termed altarages, although an altarage may be paid to a church or parish rather than a person.
Work abroad is the term used when a student teaches, interns, or volunteers in a foreign country through a programme. Students gain work experience while being immersed in a foreign work environment, though the position may be paid or unpaid. Dependent upon the programme, a student working abroad may live in a dormitory or apartment with other students or with a "host family", a group of people who live in that country and agree to provide student lodging.
Wages and salaries are the remuneration paid or payable to employees for work performed on behalf of an employer or services provided. Normally, an employer is not permitted to withhold the wages or any part thereof, except as permitted or required by law. Employers are required by law to deduct from wages, commonly termed "withhold", income taxes, social contributions and for other purposes, which are then paid directly to tax authorities, social security authority, etc., on behalf of the employee. Garnishment is a court ordered withholding from wages to pay a debt.
The basic annual salary of a Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons is £84,144, as of April 2022. In addition, MPs are able to claim allowances to cover the costs of running an office and employing staff, and maintaining a constituency residence or a residence in London. Additional salary is paid for appointments or additional duties, such as ministerial appointments, being a whip, chairing a select committee or chairing a Public Bill committee.
Vicar is a title given to certain parish priests in the Church of England and other Anglican churches. It has played a significant role in Anglican church organisation in ways that are different from other Christian denominations. The title is very old and arises from the medieval arrangement where priests were appointed either by a secular lord, by a bishop or by a religious foundation. Historically, but no longer, vicars share a benefice with a rector to whom the great tithes were paid. Vicar derives from the Latin vicarius meaning a substitute.
Intern Aware is the United Kingdom national campaign for fair internships, founded in 2010. Working closely in cooperation with businesses, trade bodies and trade unions, they aim to help employers develop high quality internship schemes with recruitment based on merit, and payment that complies with employment law. They also work with interns to ensure they receive the pay they are potentially entitled to by law.
YMCA Training, Inc. is a non-profit organization in Boston that provides access to employment to low-income, unemployed adults through technical and office support skills training. The Boston program is part of a national network of local job training organizations called Training, Inc. National Association, which provides resources to organizations in the workforce development field. Other Training, Inc. member sites are currently located in Chicago, Indianapolis, and Newark.
Volunteer grants are charitable gifts given to non-profit organizations by corporations in recognition of volunteer work being done by a company's employees. This practice is widespread in the United States.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations. In contrast, a vicar is also a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader.
Legislative staffers in Colorado are employees of the state tasked with supporting the function of the Colorado General Assembly and the members who comprise that body. With very few exceptions, these personnel are non-partisan public servants. Colorado employs a total of 345 legislative staff across various functions.
Passion Pay is a neologism used by young people of South Korea. The similar term in use in Japan is Yarigai sakushu where the translation would be closer to Job Satisfaction 'exploitation'.
Penelope Jane Sayer is a British Anglican priest. Since 2018, she has served as Archdeacon of Sherborne in the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury. She had served in parish ministry in the Dioceses of Chichester and of Chelmsford, before becoming an archdeacon.