Thomas J. Russell (born June 13, 1933) was an American engineer and businessman. He was one of the early pioneers of microwave technology, specializing in ultrabroadband microwave directional couplers. Due to his contributions in shaping the microwave industry with innovation and invention, Thomas J. Russell was officially named a Microwave Legend in 2006.
Thomas J. Russell grew up in Rock Rapids, Iowa, where he attended Iowa State University and studied Electrical Engineering. He then moved to the University of Missouri to begin post-graduate studies in Electrical Engineering and a second master's degree in Mathematics.
After graduation, he joined Douglas Aircraft Company in Santa Monica and then moved on to Bendix Aviation in Kansas City and joined Alfred Electronics in Palo Alto in 1966, before starting his own company nine years later.
In 1975 Russell founded KRYTAR,a privately owned company that specializes in the manufacture of ultra broadband microwave components and test equipment for space, military and commercial usage. Russell developed one of the first computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools specifically for the design of microwave couplers. This software was used for the design and development of several of the company's early patented product lines.
While running KRYTAR, Russell was also responsible for seven patents related to microwave technology.
Russell’s first patent was filed in 1966.During his career he filed 8 separate patents, spanning four decades, all related to directional couplers and similar technologies. In 1979 he received a patent based upon the idea of increasing the directivity of a coupler by building the central couplers in a unique configuration for a TEM mode strip-line directional coupler. By making the end portion immediately adjacent and in between the diverging conductors facing the coupling portion, thus increasing the directivity of TEM mode strip-line directional couplers which decreases cost.
Over the course of his career, Russell also contributed to a number of industry journals, such as the IEEE Microwave Journal, where he published ideas on microwave power dividersand his patented matched-line directional dividers (MLDD), amongst other topics.
Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter corresponding to frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz respectively. Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF bands. A more common definition in radio-frequency engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations.
A traveling-wave tube or traveling-wave tube amplifier is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range. The TWT belongs to a category of "linear beam" tubes, such as the klystron, in which the radio wave is amplified by absorbing power from a beam of electrons as it passes down the tube. Although there are various types of TWT, two major categories are:
Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission line which can be fabricated with any technology where a conductor is separated from a ground plane by a dielectric layer known as the substrate. Microstriplines are used to convey microwave-frequency signals.
Stripline is a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transmission line medium invented by Robert M. Barrett of the Air Force Cambridge Research Centre in the 1950s. Stripline is the earliest form of planar transmission line.
Power dividers and directional couplers are passive devices used mostly in the field of radio technology. They couple a defined amount of the electromagnetic power in a transmission line to a port enabling the signal to be used in another circuit. An essential feature of directional couplers is that they only couple power flowing in one direction. Power entering the output port is coupled to the isolated port but not to the coupled port. A directional coupler designed to split power equally between two ports is called a hybrid coupler.
Ramesh Garg is currently a dean of student and alumni affairs in IIT Ropar. Previously he was a professor at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Professor Garg is known for his work on microstrip antennas.
RF microwave CAE CAD is computer-aided design (CAD) using computer technology to aid in the design, modeling, and simulation of an RF or microwave product. It is a visual and symbol-based method of communication whose conventions are particular to RF/microwave engineering.
Tatsuo Itoh was Professor and holder of the Northrop Grumman Chair in Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronics in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he taught and conducted research on microwave and millimeter wave electronics, guided wave structures, low power wireless electronics, and integrated passive components and antennas.
Jesse Eugene Russell is an American inventor. He was trained as an electrical engineer at Tennessee State University and Stanford University, and worked in the field of wireless communication for over 20 years. He holds patents and continues to invent and innovate in the emerging area of next generation broadband wireless networks, technologies and services, often referred to as 4G. Russell was inducted into the United States' National Academy of Engineering for his contributions to the field of wireless communication. He pioneered the field of digital cellular communication in the 1980s through the use of high power linear amplification and low bit rate voice encoding technologies and received a patent in 1992 for his work in the area of digital cellular base station design.
A distributed-element filter is an electronic filter in which capacitance, inductance, and resistance are not localised in discrete capacitors, inductors, and resistors as they are in conventional filters. Its purpose is to allow a range of signal frequencies to pass, but to block others. Conventional filters are constructed from inductors and capacitors, and the circuits so built are described by the lumped element model, which considers each element to be "lumped together" at one place. That model is conceptually simple, but it becomes increasingly unreliable as the frequency of the signal increases, or equivalently as the wavelength decreases. The distributed-element model applies at all frequencies, and is used in transmission-line theory; many distributed-element components are made of short lengths of transmission line. In the distributed view of circuits, the elements are distributed along the length of conductors and are inextricably mixed together. The filter design is usually concerned only with inductance and capacitance, but because of this mixing of elements they cannot be treated as separate "lumped" capacitors and inductors. There is no precise frequency above which distributed element filters must be used but they are especially associated with the microwave band.
A waveguide filter is an electronic filter constructed with waveguide technology. Waveguides are hollow metal conduits inside which an electromagnetic wave may be transmitted. Filters are devices used to allow signals at some frequencies to pass, while others are rejected. Filters are a basic component of electronic engineering designs and have numerous applications. These include selection of signals and limitation of noise. Waveguide filters are most useful in the microwave band of frequencies, where they are a convenient size and have low loss. Examples of microwave filter use are found in satellite communications, telephone networks, and television broadcasting.
Anaren, Inc. provides high-frequency microwave microelectronics, components, and assemblies for wireless, aerospace, and defense electronics applications.
Planar transmission lines are transmission lines with conductors, or in some cases dielectric (insulating) strips, that are flat, ribbon-shaped lines. They are used to interconnect components on printed circuits and integrated circuits working at microwave frequencies because the planar type fits in well with the manufacturing methods for these components. Transmission lines are more than simply interconnections. With simple interconnections, the propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the wire is fast enough to be considered instantaneous, and the voltages at each end of the wire can be considered identical. If the wire is longer than a large fraction of a wavelength, these assumptions are no longer true and transmission line theory must be used instead. With transmission lines, the geometry of the line is precisely controlled so that its electrical behaviour is highly predictable. At lower frequencies, these considerations are only necessary for the cables connecting different pieces of equipment, but at microwave frequencies the distance at which transmission line theory becomes necessary is measured in millimetres. Hence, transmission lines are needed within circuits.
Arye Rosen is Academy Professor of Biomedical and Electrical Engineering in the School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA and associate vice president at Rowan University and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Fadhel M. Ghannouchi is a Tunisian-Canadian electrical engineer, who conducts research in radio frequency (RF) technology and wireless communications. He has held several invited positions at academic and research institutions in Europe, North America, and Japan. He has provided consulting services to a number of microwave and wireless communications companies. He is currently Professor, Alberta Innovates/the Canada Research Chair, and the Founding Director of the Intelligent RF Radio Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
Air stripline is a form of electrical planar transmission line whereby a conductor in the form of a thin metal strip is suspended between two ground planes. The idea is to make the dielectric essentially air. Mechanical support of the line may be a thin substrate, periodical insulated supports, or the device connectors and other electrical items.
Stepan Lucyszyn PhD DSc FIEEE is an British engineer, inventor and technologist, and Professor of Millimetre-wave Systems at Imperial College London, England. He was named a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2014 for his contributions to monolithic microwave integrated circuits and radio frequency microelectromechanical systems. After briefly working in both the French and UK space industries, Professor Lucyszyn has devoted his academic career to the research and development of advanced technologies that include the following themes: monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), radio frequency microelectromechnical systems, wireless power transfer (WPT), thermal infrared technologies and additive manufacturing.
Rhonda Franklin is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Minnesota. She is a microwave and radio frequency engineer whose research focuses on microelectronic mechanical structures in radio and microwave applications. She has won several awards, including the 1998 NSF Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, the 2013 Sara Evans Leadership Award, the 2017 John Tate Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Advising, and the 2018 Minnesota African American Heritage Calendar Award for her contributions to higher education.
Ahmadreza Rofougaran, also known as Reza Rofougaran is an Iranian-American Electrical engineer, inventor and entrepreneur.
Melvin M. Weiner was an electrical engineer, author, and inventor. Weiner authored three books and 36 refereed papers. He was also the holder of five patents. He was the first to reduce pass-bands and stop-bands in photonic crystals to practice. Weiner was the founder-chairman of the Motor Vehicle Safety Group.