Thomas Richard Miles

Last updated

Thomas Richard Miles, T. R. Miles, more usually Tim Miles, (11 March 1923 – 11 December 2008) was Emeritus professor of psychology at Bangor University.

Emeritus, in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, or other person.

Bangor University university in Wales, United Kingdom

Bangor University is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales. It received its Royal Charter in 1885 and was one of the founding institutions of the federal University of Wales. Officially known as University College of North Wales (UCNW), and later University of Wales, Bangor (UWB), in 2007 it became Bangor University, independent from the University of Wales.

Contents

His research career was devoted to the study of developmental dyslexia as a constitutional disorder, likely to be "a form of aphasia", to the recognition that children with dyslexia have special education needs and that there should be a statutory obligation of schools to meet these, and, with his wife Elaine, to the development and evaluation of teaching methods to provide such support.

Dyslexia neurological condition, developmental or acquired

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.

One of the first students in the institute of experimental psychology at Oxford University, he was much influenced by the eminent experimental psychologist Oliver Zangwill. His first lectureship was at University College of North Wales, Bangor in the departments of education and philosophy in 1949. He was appointed as the first professor of the new Department of Psychology at Bangor in 1963. He was a founder member of the British Dyslexia Association in 1972, and served as one of its vice-presidents. In 1974 he founded the Bangor Dyslexia Unit (now the Miles Dyslexia Centre) to recruit teachers, to train them in multi-sensory methods of training, and to organise their work in the community, in collaboration with Gwynedd and Anglesey Local Education Authorities.

Oliver Louis Zangwill FRS was an influential British neuropsychologist. He was Professor of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, 1952–81, and then Professor Emeritus. His father was author Israel Zangwill; his mother was author Edith Ayrton, whose parents were physicist William Edward Ayrton and physician Matilda Chaplin. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977.

Following his clinical observations of many single cases of developmental dyslexia and the consequent identification of the more common aspects of the syndrome, he developed the Bangor Dyslexia Diagnostic Test, first published in 1982 and now translated into a number of languages including Welsh and Japanese. He was founder of the journal Dyslexia.

He also wrote extensively on the nature of intelligence, linguistic philosophy, religion and science.

Awards and recognition

Books

Obituaries

The Guardian 7 January 2009

Fawcett. A. (2009). Thomas Richard ‘Tim’ Miles Dyslexia, 15: 69–71. doi : 10.1002/dys.387

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

Related Research Articles

Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist, biologist, logician, philosopher and academic

Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology".

Keith E. Stanovich is Emeritus Professor of Applied Psychology and Human Development, University of Toronto and former Canada Research Chair of Applied Cognitive Science. His research areas are the psychology of reasoning and the psychology of reading. His research in the field of reading was fundamental to the emergence of today's scientific consensus about what reading is, how it works and what it does for the mind. His research on the cognitive basis of rationality has been featured in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences and in recent books by Yale University Press and University of Chicago Press. His book What Intelligence Tests Miss won the 2010 Grawemeyer Award in Education. He received the 2012 E. L. Thorndike Career Achievement Award from the American Psychological Association.

Lightner Witmer American psychologist

Lightner Witmer was an American psychologist. He introduced the term "clinical psychology" and is often credited with founding the field that it describes. Witmer created the world's first "psychological clinic" at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, as well as the first journal of clinical psychology and the first clinical hospital school in 1907.

The concept of a perceptual noise exclusion deficit is an emerging hypothesis as to the origins and nature of dyslexia. It is supported by research showing that dyslexic adults and children experience difficulty in targeting visual information in the presence of visual perceptual distractions, but subjects do not show the same impairment when the distracting factors are removed in an experimental setting. Thus, some dyslexic symptoms appear to arise because of an impaired ability to filter out environmental distractions, and to categorize information so as to distinguish the important sensory data from the irrelevant.

Management of dyslexia

Dyslexia is characterized by learning difficulties that can include:

Zdeněk Matějček was a Czech child psychologist, researcher, and childcare reformer, who pioneered the study of the institutional conditions of raising children in an environment of psychological deprivation. He was a significant reformer of child care, emphasising the irreplaceable role of the family. He was known for studies of the effects on children of being held in prison camps during World War II, was a co-founder and the first chairman of an association that involved animals, such as dogs and horses, in child therapy, and was the principal organizer of a meeting of the International Association for Research in Learning Disabilities, held in Prague on October 2-5, 1989. He placed 93rd on Největší Čech.

Deep dyslexia is a form of dyslexia that disrupts reading processes. Deep dyslexia may occur as a result of a head injury, stroke, disease, or operation. This injury results in the occurrence of semantic errors during reading and the impairment of nonword reading.

James A. Graham (psychologist) American psychologist

James A. Graham, is a professor at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ), in the Department of Psychology. He is a developmental psychologist whose work explores the social-cognitive aspects of children’s relationships.

John Skoyles is a neuroscientist and evolutionary psychologist. He studied philosophy of science at the London School of Economics and then did MRC funded research upon neuroscience and dyslexia at University College London.

The history of dyslexia research spans from the late 1800s to the present.

Dyslexia is a neurological symptom wherein an individual experiences difficulty reading. The neurological nature and underlying causes of dyslexia are an active area of research, and the distinction of dyslexia as a condition is a topic of some controversy.

Dyslexia is a complex, lifelong disorder involving difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters and other symbols. Dyslexia does not affect general intelligence, but is often co-diagnosed with ADHD. There are at least three sub-types of dyslexia that have been recognized by researchers: orthographic, or surface dyslexia, phonological dyslexia and mixed dyslexia where individuals exhibit symptoms of both orthographic and phonological dyslexia. Studies have shown that dyslexia is genetic and can be passed down through families, but it is important to note that, although a genetic disorder, there is no specific locus in the brain for reading and writing. The human brain does have language centers, but written language is a cultural artifact, and a very complex one requiring brain regions designed to recognize and interpret written symbols as representations of language in rapid synchronization. The complexity of the system and the lack of genetic predisposition for it is one possible explanation for the difficulty in acquiring and understanding written language.

Dyslexia is a disorder characterized by problems with the visual notation of speech, which in most languages of European origin are problems with alphabet writing systems which have a phonetic construction.

Dislecksia: The Movie is a documentary film. It was created in 2013 by Captured Time Productions, LLC, a production company based in Litchfield, Connecticut. Dislecksia is the company's seventh film. It is directed by Emmy Award-winning director Harvey Hubbell V, who is a dyslexic himself.

Julian George "Joe" Elliott, FAcSS is a British academic and educational psychologist. He has been Principal of Collingwood College, Durham since 2011, and a Professor of Education at Durham University since 2004. He has caused controversy by describing dyslexia as a 'useless term' and a 'meaningless label'.

Dorothy V. M. Bishop British psychologist

Dorothy Vera Margaret Bishop is a British psychologist specialising in developmental disorders specifically, developmental language impairments. She is Professor of Developmental Neuropsychology and Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford, where she has been since 1998. Bishop is Principal Investigator for the Oxford Study of Children's Communication Impairments (OSCCI). She is a supernumary fellow of St John's College, Oxford.

Usha Goswami is a researcher and professor of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge and the director of the Centre for Neuroscience in Education at St. John's College, Cambridge. She obtained her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of Oxford before becoming a professor of cognitive developmental psychology at the University College London. Goswami's work is primarily in educational neuroscience with major focuses on reading development and developmental dyslexia.

Patrick Leman

Patrick Leman is a British psychologist and Dean of Education at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King's College London. He was formerly Head of the Department of Psychology and Associate Dean of Science at Royal Holloway, University of London, Chair of the British Psychological Society's Developmental Psychology Section and has held posts at Goldsmiths College London and University of Cambridge. His principal research describes the ways in which children learn through communication with one another, often in informal, classroom contexts. He is Fellow of the British Psychological Society and editor of the British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2014-)

Joseph Torgesen is an Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Education at Florida State University. At the time of his retirement from the university in 2008, he was the W. Russell and Eugenia Morcom Chair of Psychology and Education and Director of the Florida Center for Reading Research. Dr. Torgesen received his Ph.D. in Developmental and Clinical Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1976, and served on the Psychology faculty at FSU from 1976 until 2008.

References