Thomas Schneider (born 6 September 1964, in Göttingen) is a German Egyptologist.
Thomas Schneider began his studies in 1984 at the University of Zurich, focusing on history, Egyptology and Hebrew. He transferred to the University of Basel in 1986, where he achieved a MA in Egyptology, Ancient History and Old Testament Studies in 1990. He carried out further study at the Collège de France in Paris before completing his PhD in Egyptology at the University of Basel in 1996. In 1999 he completed his habilitation at the same university.
Thomas Schneider became the professor of Egyptology at the University of Wales, in Swansea. Before that, he was a visiting professor at the universities of Vienna, Warsaw and Heidelberg, professor of the National Swiss Research Association at the Institute of Egyptology at Basel and participated in the MISR Project (Mission Siptah-Ramses X in the Valley of the Kings) of the University of Basel. Since 2007, he has been an Associate Professor of Egyptology and the Near East at the University of British Columbia.
Schneider published the works of Otto RösslerGesammelte Schriften zur Semitohamitistik (Collected Works on Afro-Asiatic languages) stating that "none of the published works of this scholar have been excluded from the new publication." But in fact, he excluded a large portion of Rössler's numerous Nazi writings, written before 1945, which were produced in close collaboration with the Reich Security Main Office, where Rössler worked as an "expert" to help propagate the idea of Hitler as a savior figure for contemporary Islam in order to improve Nazi Germany's place in the Arab world.
Since 1987, Thomas Schneider has pursued various research interests focussed on Egypt. His main areas of research are the political, cultural and intellectual history of Egypt, the relationship of ancient Egypt to the Near East, North Africa and the Aegean, the phonology of ancient Egyptian, connections between ancient Egyptian and the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the history of Egyptology.
Hyksos is a term which, in modern Egyptology, designates the kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. The seat of power of these kings was the city of Avaris in the Nile delta, from where they ruled over Lower and Middle Egypt up to Cusae. In the Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written by the Greco-Egyptian priest and historian Manetho in the 3rd century BC, the term Hyksos is used ethnically to designate people of probable West Semitic, Levantine origin. While Manetho portrayed the Hyksos as invaders and oppressors, this interpretation is questioned in modern Egyptology. Instead, Hyksos rule might have been preceded by groups of Canaanite peoples who gradually settled in the Nile delta from the end of the Twelfth Dynasty onwards and who may have seceded from the crumbling and unstable Egyptian control at some point during the Thirteenth Dynasty.
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. The concept of a "Second Intermediate Period" was coined in 1942 by German Egyptologist Hanns Stock.
Manfred Bietak is an Austrian archaeologist. He is professor emeritus of Egyptology at the University of Vienna, working as the principal investigator for an ERC Advanced Grant Project "The Hyksos Enigma" and editor-in-chief of the journal Ägypten und Levante and of four series of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental and European Archaeology (2016–2020).
Djedhotepre Dedumose I was an Egyptian pharaoh of the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Darrell Baker, Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, he was a king of the 16th Dynasty. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath, Thomas Schneider and Detlef Franke see him as a king of the 13th Dynasty.
Khakheperre Senusret II was the fourth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from 1897 BC to 1878 BC. His pyramid was constructed at El-Lahun. Senusret II took a great deal of interest in the Faiyum oasis region and began work on an extensive irrigation system from Bahr Yussef through to Lake Moeris through the construction of a dike at El-Lahun and the addition of a network of drainage canals. The purpose of his project was to increase the amount of cultivable land in that area. The importance of this project is emphasized by Senusret II's decision to move the royal necropolis from Dahshur to El-Lahun where he built his pyramid. This location would remain the political capital for the 12th and 13th Dynasties of Egypt. The king also established the first known workers' quarter in the nearby town of Senusrethotep (Kahun).
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.
Helmut Satzinger is an Austrian Egyptologist and Coptologist. He studied Egyptology, Arabic Philology and African Languages at the University of Vienna and, for 1 year, at Cairo University. Immediately after obtaining his PhD degree in 1964, he became commissioned to catalogue and publish Coptic papyri in the West Berlin section of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.
Hans Wolfgang Helck was a German Egyptologist, considered one of the most important Egyptologists of the 20th century. From 1956 until his retirement in 1979 he was a Professor at the University of Hamburg. He remained active after his retirement and together with Wolfhart Westendorf published the German Lexikon der Ägyptologie, completed in 1992. He published many books and articles on the history of Egyptian and Near Eastern culture. He was a member of the German Archaeological Institute and a corresponding member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences.
Djedneferre Dedumose II was a native ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a ruler of the Theban 16th Dynasty. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath, Thomas Schneider and Detlef Franke see him as a king of the 13th Dynasty.
Iufni was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was the 7th king of the dynasty, while Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the 6th ruler. Iufni reigned from Memphis for a very short time c. 1788 BC or 1741 BC.
Sewadjkare was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the early Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was the eleventh ruler of the dynasty, reigning for a short time c. 1781 BC. Alternatively, Thomas Schneider, Detlef Franke and Jürgen von Beckerath see him as the tenth king of the 13th Dynasty, with Schneider placing his reign at c. 1737 BC.
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the sixth king of the dynasty, reigning for one to five years, possibly three years, from 1791 BC until 1788 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the ninth king of the dynasty.
Neferkasokar was an Ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) who may have ruled in Egypt during the 2nd Dynasty. Very little is known about him, since no contemporary records about him have been found. Rather his name has been found in later sources.
Detlef Franke was a German Egyptologist specialist of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
Shenshek was a ruler of some part of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, possibly during the 17th century BC, and likely belonging to the 14th Dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well. His chronological position and identity are unclear.
Herwer was an ancient Egyptian town in the 16th nome in Upper Egypt. It is mentioned in several ancient inscriptions dating from the Old, Middle and New Kingdom. The main deities of the place were Khnum and Heqet, both several times called lord or lady of Herwer. Perhaps in the Middle Kingdom, the place became capital of the 16th Upper Egyptian nome. The local governor Amenemhat of that nome was indeed overseer of the priests of Khnum of Herwer. The place is often mentioned in the tombs of Beni Hasan.
Elba Perla Fuscaldo is an Argentinian Egyptologist, specialist in the ceramics of Ancient Egypt.
Steve Pasek is a German Egyptologist, Demotist, Historian and Classicist.
The periodization of ancient Egypt is the use of periodization to organize the 3,000-year history of ancient Egypt. The system of 30 dynasties recorded by third-century BC Greek-speaking Egyptian priest Manetho is still in use today ; however, the system of "periods" and "kingdoms" used to group the dynasties is of modern origin. The modern system consists of three "Golden Ages", interspersed between "intermediate periods" and early and late periods.
Rainer Hannig was a German Egyptologist.