Thomas Shaw (c. 1752 Bath-c. 1830 Paris) was an English violinist and composer. His father, also Thomas Shaw, was a leading string player and early 18th-century concert director in Bath, England. Shaw's earliest known performance was in Bath in April 1769, but he was clearly an accomplished player by then, for during the following autumn and spring of 1770 he led the orchestra in Thomas Linley's subscription concerts. He was a member of the theatre band in 1771 and his first known composition, an overture, was performed in a concert at the end of December. By 1772 he was playing his own compositions in Bath and Bristol but difficulties with Thomas Linley made London a more attractive centre for him and his last known performance in Bath was in November 1774. That same year Six Favourite Minuets by Shaw were published by Thomas Whitehead in Bath.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles (156 km) west of London and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage site in 1987.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow.
In 1776 Shaw was admitted to the Royal Society of Musicians and was a member of the Drury Lane band by 1778. From 1786 until the early 19th century he led the band, and Charles Dibdin thought him a much better leader than Covent Garden's Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. By 1790 Shaw had published some promising instrumental works and compiled an afterpiece opera, The Island of St Marguerite which premiered at Drury Lane on 13 November 1789. In 1791, he wrote an overture for the revival of Michael Arne's Cymon; both these overtures were published in parts, probably in the early 1790s to judge from their title pages. Thereafter, Shaw composed only the occasional song for Drury Lane, even though he later became one of the theatre's proprietors. Sheridan's failure to pay him led to severe financial difficulties, and his debts eventually drove him abroad. He seems to have been in Paris when he composed the funeral anthem for Princess Charlotte of Wales in 1817, which was published soon after.
The Royal Society of Musicians of Great Britain is a charity in the United Kingdom that supports musicians. It is the oldest music-related charity in Great Britain, founded in 1738 as the "Fund for Decay'd Musicians" by a declaration of trust signed by 228 musicians, including Edward Purcell, Thomas Arne, William Boyce, Johann Christoph Pepusch, Dr. John Worgan, and George Frideric Handel. It still operates a bank account at Drummonds Bank which was opened by its first secretary, Michael Christian Festing, in November 1738.
Drury Lane is a street on the eastern boundary of the Covent Garden area of London, running between Aldwych and High Holborn. The northern part is in the borough of Camden and the southern part in the City of Westminster.
Charles Dibdin was a British composer, musician, dramatist, novelist and actor. With over 600 songs to his name, for many of which he wrote both the lyrics and the music and performed them himself, he was in his time the most prolific English singer-songwriter. He is best known as the composer of "Tom Bowling", one of his many sea songs, which often features at the Last Night of the Proms. He also wrote about 30 dramatic pieces, including the operas The Waterman (1774) and The Quaker (1775), and several novels, memoirs and histories.
Shaw may have entertained Haydn to lunch on 14 September 1791; Haydn confided in his second London notebook that Mrs Shaw was ‘the most beautiful woman I ever saw’.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
(Franz) Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".
Michael William Balfe was an Irish composer, best-remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl.
Thomas Augustine Arne was an English composer. He is best known for his patriotic song Rule Britannia, a version of God Save the King, which became the British national anthem, and the song A-Hunting We Will Go. Arne was a leading British theatre composer of the 18th century, working at Drury Lane and Covent Garden.
Michael Arne was an English composer, harpsichordist, organist, singer, and actor. He was the son of the composer Thomas Arne and the soprano Cecilia Young, a member of the famous Young family of musicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Like his father, Arne worked primarily as a composer of stage music and vocal art song, contributing little to other genres of music. He wrote several songs for London's pleasure gardens, the most famous of which is Lass with the Delicate Air (1762). A moderately prolific composer, Arne wrote nine operas and collaborated on at least 15 others. His most successful opera, Cymon (1767), enjoyed several revivals during his lifetime and into the early nineteenth century.
Étienne Nicolas Méhul was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution". He was also the first composer to be called a "Romantic".
Ignace Joseph Pleyel was an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
Thomas Linley was an English bass and musician active in Bath, Somerset. Born in Badminton, Gloucestershire, Linley began his musical career after he moved to Bath at age 11 and became apprentice to the organist Thomas Chilcot. After his marriage to Mary Johnson in 1752, Linley at first supported his wife and growing family predominantly as a music teacher. As his children grew and he developed their musical talent, he drew an increasing amount of income from their concerts while also managing the assembly rooms in Bath. When the new Bath Assembly Rooms opened in 1771, Linley became musical director and continued to promote his children's careers. He was eventually able to move to London with the thousands of pounds which he had amassed from their concerts.
Michael Kelly was an Irish singer (tenor), composer and theatrical manager who made an international career of importance in musical history. One of the leading figures in British musical theatre around the turn of the nineteenth century, and a close associate of Richard Sheridan's, he had been a friend of Mozart and Paisiello, and created roles in operas of both. With his friend Nancy Storace, he was one of the first singers in that age from Britain and Ireland to make a front-rank reputation in Italy and Austria. In Italy he was also known as O'Kelly or even Signor Ochelli. Although the primary source for his life is his Reminiscences, it has been said 'Any statement of Kelly's is immediately suspect.'
Sir Julius Benedict was a German-born composer and conductor, resident in England for most of his career.
George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower was an Afro-European musician, born in Poland. He grew to be a virtuoso violinist, living in England for much of his life. He was born in Biała in Galicia, where his father worked for Hieronim Wincenty Radziwiłł, in 1778. He was baptised Hieronimo Hyppolito de Augusto on 11 October 1778.
Anna Maria Crouch, often referred to as Mrs Crouch, was a singer and stage actress in the London theatre. She was (briefly) a mistress of George, Prince of Wales.
François Hippolyte Barthélemon was a French violinist, pedagogue, and composer active in England.
Elizabeth Ann Sheridan was a singer who possessed great beauty. She was the subject of several paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, who was a family friend, Joshua Reynolds and Richard Samuel. An adept poet and writer, she became involved with the Blue Stockings Society and participated in Whig politics.
Thomas (Tom) Linley the younger was the eldest son of the composer Thomas Linley the elder and his wife Mary Johnson. He was one of the most precocious composers and performers that have been known in England, and became known as the "English Mozart".
The Duenna is a three-act comic opera, mostly composed by Thomas Linley the elder and his son, Thomas Linley the younger, to an English-language libretto by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. At the time, it was considered one of the most successful operas ever staged in England, and its admirers included Samuel Johnson, William Hazlitt and Lord George Byron.
L'anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, Hob. 28/13, is an opera in Italian in four acts by Joseph Haydn, the last he ever wrote. The libretto, by Carlo Francesco Badini, is based on the myth of Orpheus and Euridice as told in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Composed in 1791, the opera was never performed during Haydn's lifetime.
Harriett Abrams was an English soprano and composer. Particularly praised for her performances in the repertoire of George Frideric Handel, Abrams enjoyed a successful concert career in London during the 1780s. Music historian Charles Burney praised the sweetness of her voice and her tasteful musical interpretations.
Joseph Mazzinghi (1765–1844) was a British composer.
William Thomas Parke was an English oboist and composer. He played in notable concerts of the day; in retirement he published Musical Memoirs.