Thomas atte Crosse, also called Thomas de Crosse (died after 1348) was an English cleric, Crown official and judge, who had a highly successful career in both England and Ireland.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.
Little is recorded about his early years, but by 1336 he was referred to as an official of long standing who had been put to great "labours and charges" on the King's business in England, Ireland and Scotland.
Edward III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
He appears as a prebendary in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin in 1334, and in the same year was made a Baron of the Court of Exchequer (Ireland). He was made Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, "so long as he was of good behaviour" in 1335 and held that office for two years.
A prebendary is a member of the Anglican or Roman Catholic clergy, a form of canon with a role in the administration of a cathedral or collegiate church. When attending services, prebendaries sit in particular seats, usually at the back of the choir stalls, known as prebendal stalls.
Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1191, is the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland. With its 43-metre (141 ft) spire, St. Patrick's is the tallest church in Ireland and the largest. Christ Church Cathedral, also a Church of Ireland cathedral in Dublin, is designated as the local Cathedral of the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough.
The Court of Exchequer (Ireland) was one of the senior courts of common law in Ireland. It was the mirror image of the equivalent court in England. The Court of Exchequer was one of the four royal courts of justice which gave their name to the building which is still called the Four Courts in Dublin.
In 1336 in consideration of his long and good service he was appointed Keeper of the Royal Market in Ireland, and Royal Clerk of the Wages. He was assigned the task of .paying the wages of the men at arms being sent to Scotland "to suppress the malice of the King's Scottish enemies" in 1335-6, and with purveying the necessary food and drink for the Scottish campaign.
Purveyance is the right of the Crown to requisition goods and services for royal use, and was developed in England over the course of the late eleventh through the fourteenth centuries. In theory, the king's prerogative allowed him to collect goods needed for both household and military use, but the latter was discontinued in 1362. The primary problem with the system was that it was open to abuse from corrupt officials, who would often requisition goods and sell them for profit or use extortion and other means to obtain items or money that was not passed on or divulged to the king. Accordingly, English kings established numerous, though somewhat ineffectual, statutes in an attempt to limit the corruption.
He returned to England in 1337: Ball states that he received many clerical preferments but does not specify them. He was appointed Keeper of the Royal Wardrobe in 1337 and was Chamberlain of the Exchequer from 1337 to 1348.
The King's Wardrobe, together with the Chamber, made up the personal part of medieval English government known as the King's household. Originally the room where the king's clothes, armour, and treasure were stored, the term was expanded to describe both its contents and the department of clerks who ran it. Early in the reign of Henry III the Wardrobe emerged out of the fragmentation of the Curia Regis to become the chief administrative and accounting department of the Household. The Wardrobe received regular block grants from the Exchequer for much of its history; in addition, however, the wardrobe treasure of gold and jewels enabled the king to make secret and rapid payments to fund his diplomatic and military operations, and for a time, in the 13th-14th centuries, it eclipsed the Exchequer as the chief spending department of central government.
In the civil service of the United Kingdom, Her Majesty’s Exchequer, or just the Exchequer, is the accounting process of central government and the government's current account i.e. money held from taxation and other government revenues in the Consolidated Fund. It can be found used in various financial documents including the latest departmental and agency annual accounts.
The office of Lord High Chancellor of Ireland was the highest judicial office in Ireland until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. From 1721 to 1801, it was also the highest political office of the Irish Parliament: the Chancellor was Speaker of the Irish House of Lords. The Lord Chancellor was also Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of Ireland. In all three respects, the office mirrored the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
The Exchequer of Pleas or Court of Exchequer was a court that dealt with matters of equity, a set of legal principles based on natural law and common law in England and Wales. Originally part of the curia regis, or King's Council, the Exchequer of Pleas split from the curia during the 1190s, to sit as an independent, central court. The Court of Chancery's reputation for tardiness and expense resulted in much of its business transferring to the Exchequer. The Exchequer and Chancery, with similar jurisdictions, drew closer together over the years, until an argument was made during the 19th century that having two seemingly identical courts was unnecessary. As a result, the Exchequer lost its equity jurisdiction. With the Judicature Acts, the Exchequer was formally dissolved as a judicial body by an Order in Council of 16 December 1880.
Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley,, known as 1st Baron Ellesmere from 1603 to 1616, was an English nobleman, judge and statesman from the Egerton family who served as Lord Keeper and Lord Chancellor for twenty-one years.
Sir Bartholomew Dillon was a leading Irish judge of the sixteenth century who held the offices of Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer and Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland.
Henry Hene or Henn was an English-born judge who had a distinguished career in Ireland, and held the office of Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer.
Walter de Islip was an English-born cleric, statesman and judge in fourteenth-century Ireland. He was the first Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer; he also held the office of Treasurer of Ireland, and numerous clerical benefices. His career was damaged by accusations of corruption and maladministration.
Sir Simon Fitz-Richard was an Irish barrister and judge. He became Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas, and fought a long and successful campaign against the efforts of his political enemies to remove him from office.
John de St Paul, also known as John de Owston and John de Ouston, was an English-born cleric and judge of the fourteenth century. He was Archbishop of Dublin 1349–62 and Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1350–56. He had previously been Master of the Rolls in England 1337–40. Apart from a brief period of disgrace in 1340, he enjoyed the confidence of King Edward III. He was described as a zealous advocate of English policy in Ireland, but also as a pragmatic statesman, who was willing to conciliate the Anglo-Irish ruling class. He did much to enlarge and beautify Christ Church, Dublin, although virtually no trace of his work survives, having been destroyed by the Victorian rebuilding of the Cathedral.
Thomas de Montpellier was a fourteenth-century Anglo-French judge and Crown official, much of whose career was spent in Ireland. He held a number of important lay and clerical offices including Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and, briefly, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer.
Adam de Harvington or de Herwynton (c.1270-c.1345) was a fourteenth-century Crown official and judge who had a successful career in both England and Ireland. He held office as Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer and as English Chancellor of the Exchequer, and acquired considerable wealth.
Thomas de Everdon (c.1320–1413) was an English-born cleric and judge, who was a trusted Crown official in Ireland for several decades.
John de Burnham was an English-born judge and Crown official who spent much of his career in Ireland. He held office as Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He spent many years trying to clear himself of charges of corruption, which seem to have been the invention of malicious colleagues.
Robert de Emeldon was an English-born Crown official and judge who spent much of his career in Ireland. He held several important public offices, including Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He seems to have been a turbulent and violent individual, who was guilty of at least at least one homicide, and was later imprisoned for a number of serious crimes: but he was a favourite of King Edward III and was thus able to survive any temporary disgrace.
Hugh de Burgh was a Crown official and judge in fourteenth-century Ireland, who held the offices of Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He was praised for his good service to the English Crown, but was also accused of maladministration.
John de Grauntsete (c.1270-c.1350) was an English born judge in fourteenth-century Ireland. We know more about him than we do about many of his colleagues, and from the surviving information we can form some idea of the lifestyle of an Irish judge in his lifetime. He sat in turn in each of the Irish Courts of common law, and perhaps uniquely, he is known to have appeared in Court as an advocate even after he became a judge.
William de Tickhill was an English cleric, Crown official and judge who served very briefly as Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer.
Thomas Bache was an Anglo-Italian cleric and judge who held high office in Ireland in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries: he served one term as Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and three terms as Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer.
Admiral Sir Peter Bard was an English Knight and naval officer who held a number of important commands of the Navy Royal from 1314 to 1336. and Admiral of the West from 1314 to 1315 and again from 1338 to 1339. Vice-Admiral of the West in 1337. and Admiral of the Fleet of the Cinque Ports from 1335 to 1336.