First US edition
|Author||Erich Maria Remarque|
|Original title||Drei Kameraden|
|Translator||A. W. Wheen|
|Cover artist||Paul Wenck|
|Publisher|| Little, Brown and Company (US)|
|December 1936 |
Published in English
Three Comrades (German : Drei Kameraden) is a novel first published in 1936 by the German author Erich Maria Remarque. It is written in first person by the main character Robert Lohkamp, whose somewhat disillusioned outlook on life is due to his horrifying experiences in the trenches of the First World War's French-German front. He shares these experiences with Otto Köster and Gottfried Lenz, his two comrades with whom he runs an auto-repair shop in late 1920s Berlin (probably). Remarque wrote the novel in exile and it was first published in Dutch translation as Drei kameraden, with English translation following soon in Good Housekeeping from January to March 1937 and in the book form in the same year. First German language edition was published in 1938 by exile publisher Querido in Amsterdam, but the novel was published in Germany only in 1951.
The city, which never is referred to by name (however, it is likely Berlin), is crowded by a growing number of jobless and marked by increasing violence between left and right. The novel starts in the seedy milieu of bars where prostitutes mingle with the hopeless flotsam that the war left behind. While Robert and his friends manage to make a living dealing cars and driving an old taxi, economic survival in the city is getting harder by the day. It is in this setting that Robert meets Patrice Hollmann, a mysterious, beautiful, young woman with an upper-middle-class background. Their love affair intensifies as he introduces her to his life of bars and races and Robert's nihilistic attitude slowly begins to change as he realizes how much he needs Pat.
The story takes an abrupt turn as Pat suffers a near-fatal lung hemorrhage during a summer holiday at the sea. Upon their return, Robert and Pat move in with each other, but she is scheduled to leave for a Swiss mountain sanatorium come winter. It is this temporal limitation of their happiness which makes their remaining time together so precious.
After Pat has left for Switzerland, the political situation in the city becomes heated, and Lenz, one of the comrades, is killed by a militant, not mentioned in the book by the actual name but supposed to be a Nazi. On top of this, Otto and Robert face bankruptcy and have to sell their workshop. In the midst of this misfortune, a telegram arrives informing them of Pat's worsening state of health. The two remaining comrades don't hesitate and drive the thousand kilometers to the sanatorium in the Alps to see her.
Reunited, Robert and an increasingly moribund Pat celebrate their remaining weeks before her inevitable death amid the snow-covered summits of Switzerland. It is in the last part of the book that this love story finds closure and leaves the main character, a nihilist who has found love, forever changed.
The novel was made into an American film of the same title in 1938 starring Franchot Tone, Robert Taylor, Robert Young and Margaret Sullavan, and it is believed to have been the inspiration for director Michael Cimino's 1978 film The Deer Hunter . Hayao Miyazaki's last film, The Wind Rises , also follows a strikingly similar plot, although set in Japan in the same time period.
Flowers from the Victors (1999), directed by Aleksander Surin, also was based on the novel but set in Russia in the 1990s.
All Quiet on the Western Front is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.
Erich Maria Remarque was a 20th-century German novelist. His landmark novel All Quiet on the Western Front (1928), about the German military experience of World War I, was an international best-seller which created a new literary genre, and was subsequently made into the cinema film All Quiet on the Western Front (1930).
Emil Erich Kästner was a German author, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known primarily for his humorous, socially astute poems and for children's books including Emil and the Detectives. He received the international Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1960 for his autobiography Als ich ein kleiner Junge war. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times.
Three Comrades is a 1938 drama film directed by Frank Borzage and produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz for MGM. The screenplay is by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Edward E. Paramore Jr., and was adapted from the novel Three Comrades by Erich Maria Remarque. It tells the story of the friendship of three young German soldiers following World War I and the early stages of the rise of Nazism.
Klaus Heinrich Thomas Mann was a German-born American writer and dissident. He was the brother of Erika Mann, with whom he maintained a lifelong close relationship. He is well known for his 1936 novel, Mephisto.
Bruno Alfred Döblin was a German novelist, essayist, and doctor, best known for his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929). A prolific writer whose œuvre spans more than half a century and a wide variety of literary movements and styles, Döblin is one of the most important figures of German literary modernism. His complete works comprise over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays, and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters—his complete works, republished by Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag and Fischer Verlag, span more than thirty volumes. His first published novel, Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lung, appeared in 1915 and his final novel, Hamlet oder Die lange Nacht nimmt ein Ende was published in 1956, one year before his death.
The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. The name is variously translated as Institute of Sex Research, Institute of Sexology, Institute for Sexology or Institute for the Science of Sexuality. The Institute was a non-profit foundation situated in Tiergarten, Berlin. It was headed by Magnus Hirschfeld. Since 1897 he had run the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, which campaigned on progressive and rational grounds for LGBT rights and tolerance. The Committee published the long-running journal Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen. Hirschfeld built a unique library on same-sex love and eroticism.
Carl Zuckmayer was a German writer and playwright. His older brother was the pedagogue, composer, conductor and pianist Eduard Zuckmayer.
The Night in Lisbon is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque published in 1962. It revolves around the plight of two German refugees in the opening months of World War II. One of the refugees relates their story during the course of a single night in Lisbon in 1942. The story he recounts is mainly a romantic one, and also contains a lot of action with arrests, escapes and near-misses. The novel is realistic, Remarque was himself a German refugee, and provides insight into refugee life in Europe during the early days of the war. The book completed what was known as Remarque’s "emigre trilogy" along with Flotsam and Arch of Triumph. It was Remarque's last completed work.
Arch of Triumph is a 1945 novel by Erich Maria Remarque about stateless refugees in Paris before World War II. It was his second worldwide bestseller after All Quiet on the Western Front, written during his exile in the United States (1939–1948). It was made into a feature film in 1948 and remade as a television film in 1985.
Monte Verità is a hill in Ascona, which has served as the site of many different Utopian and cultural events and communities since the beginning of the twentieth century, having started out as a popular destination for Wandervogel hikers during the Lebensreform period.
Leonhard Frank was a German expressionist writer. He studied painting and graphic art in Munich, and gained acclaim with his first novel The Robber Band. When a Berlin journalist celebrated in a famous café about news of the loss of the ship RMS Lusitania, torpedoed by a German submarine, Frank was upset – and slapped the man in his face. That is why he went into exile in Switzerland (1915–18), where he wrote a series of pacifist short-stories published under the title Man is Good. He returned to Germany, but after the Nazis gained power in 1933 Frank had to emigrate a second time. He lived in Switzerland again, moved to London, then Paris and finally fled under adventurous conditions to the United States in 1940, returning to Munich in 1950. His best-known novels were In the Last Coach and Carl and Anna, which he dramatized in 1929. In 1947 MGM made a movie titled Desire Me out of this story.
Arthur Wesley Wheen, was an Australian soldier, translator and museum librarian. He is best known for translating the work of Erich Maria Remarque into English, beginning with the classic war novel All Quiet on the Western Front in 1929.
The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the German Student Union to ceremonially burn books in Nazi Germany and Austria in the 1930s. The books targeted for burning were those viewed as being subversive or as representing ideologies opposed to Nazism. These included books written by Jewish, pacifist, religious, liberal, anarchist, socialist, communist, and sexologist authors among others. The first books burned were those of Karl Marx and Karl Kautsky.
Heaven Has No Favorites is a novel by the German writer Erich Maria Remarque. This novel is a story about passion and love, set in 1948 with a background of automobile racing. Inspired by racing driver Alfonso de Portago.
A Time to Love and a Time to Die is a 1958 Eastmancolor CinemaScope drama war film directed by Douglas Sirk and starring John Gavin. It is based on the book by German author Erich Maria Remarque, set on the Eastern Front and in Nazi Germany. With a nod to Remarque's better-known All Quiet on the Western Front, this film has been referred to as All Quiet on the Eastern Front.
Events in the year 1931 in Germany.
Flotsam is a novel first published in 1939 by the German author Erich Maria Remarque. The novel describes the interwoven stories of several immigrants who left Germany at the time of National Socialism.
The Other Love is a 1947 American film noir drama romance film directed by Andre DeToth and starring Barbara Stanwyck, David Niven, and Richard Conte. Written by Ladislas Fodor and Harry Brown based on the story "Beyond" by Erich Maria Remarque, the film is about a concert pianist who is sent to a sanatorium in Switzerland to treat a serious lung illness.
Ludwig Rubiner was a German poet, literary critic and essayist, generally seen as a representative of the expressionist movement that originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. His most important works include a manifesto entitled, "Der Dichter greift in die Politik" and a stage-drama, "Die Gewaltlosen", which he dedicated to "dem Kameraden, meiner Frau Frida". His "Kriminalsonetten" have even led to his being seen by some as a prophet of Dadaism.