|Three Romances for Oboe and Piano|
|by Robert Schumann|
|Full title||Drei Romanzen für Oboe und Klavier|
The Three Romances for Oboe and Piano, Op. 94 (German : Drei Romanzen) is a composition by Robert Schumann, his only composition for oboe. It was composed in December 1849. The work consists of three short pieces in A-B-A form, and it was written during what was speculated to be one of Schumann's manic episodes.
An average full performance lasts roughly 12 minutes.
The Romances were written in December 1849, one of the most productive years of Schumann's entire career.Previously that year, Schumann had written two other works for wind instruments and piano: the Adagio and Allegro, op. 70, for French Horn and piano, and the Fantasy Pieces for Clarinet and Piano, op. 73. According to Schumann himself, the pieces were written on December 7, 11, and 12th in Dresden. , Unlike many other oboes works at the time, the pieces were not the result of a commission by a prominent soloist of the day. Schumann gave the pieces to his wife Clara Schumann, whom he once described as his own "right hand," as a Christmas present, calling them his "hundredth opusculum." Schumann's mental health was quickly deteriorating during the time of the pieces' writing; shortly afterward, he moved from Dresden to Düsseldorf, where he was admitted to and eventually died in an asylum.
The three romances are marked in German:
The three romances are simple, relatively easy to play, and not virtuosic. However, they also require a good amount of breath control. All three affairs are in "song form," or A-B-A.The work's melodies have been described as similar to each other.
The first romance consists of an introductory piano phrase followed by the central theme played by the oboe. The piano has a layered accompaniment. After a faster-paced main section, the movement ends softly after returning to the central theme.The romance as a whole has been described as "tranquil." The second romance, which is in A Major, is primarily a traditional duet between the two instruments with a tense B section that changes tempo twice. It begins with a soft, straightforward oboe presence and a matching piano passage. The 1st tempo change introduces a more attacking and rugged theme. The last tempo change reintroduces the central theme until the end of the romance. Described as "the most rugged and colorful-sounding [romance]" and reminiscent of Brahms, the final fantasy is the liveliest of the set. There are many mood changes throughout the piece, with the A section being excited and the B section being reserved.
On November 2, 1850, the pieces were first performed privately as a piano and violin piece with Clara Schumann on piano and François Schubert on violin. The works were first performed several years after Schumann's death, in 1863; the performances took place on January 24 and February 14 in the Gewandhaus, featuring Emilius Lund on oboe and Carl Reinecke on piano.
The piece was dedicated to Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski. The original edition was published by N. Simrock. The publication date is unknown, but it is estimated to have been anywhere from December 1850 to February 1851.Nikolaus Simrock wrote a letter to Schumann on November 19, 1850, asking whether or not Schumann "would agree if we were to print on the title page: 'for oboe and pianoforte' and on this with a violin 'for violin and pianoforte' and on the third 'for clarinet and pianoforte,' since it is not looked upon with favor when several instruments appear on the title page." However, Schumann denied the request, replying, "If I had originally written the work for violin or clarinet, it would have become a completely different piece. I regret not being able to comply with your wishes, but I can do no other." Two copies of the original printing exist Schumann's copy and Wasielewski's dedication copy (both either in museums or private collections).
Disobeying Schumann's wishes, Simrock published alternate violin and oboe parts in the first edition. In her compilation of Robert's works post-mortem, Clara only included the violin transcription, possibly due to her only playing the piece with violinists.There have been several recordings of the music, including a recent one along with other Schumann oboe works by Oboe Classics. The romances are now a standard part of the oboe repertoire and often considered the best piece of romantic repertoire for the oboe.
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 54, by the German Romantic composer Robert Schumann was completed in 1845 and is the composer's only piano concerto. The complete work was premiered in Dresden on 4 December 1845. It is one of the most widely performed and recorded piano concertos from the Romantic period.
The Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129, by Robert Schumann was completed in a period of only two weeks, between 10 October and 24 October 1850, shortly after Schumann became the music director at Düsseldorf.
The Carmen Fantasy, Op. 25, by Pablo de Sarasate is a fantasy on themes from Bizet's Carmen for violin and piano or orchestra, composed in 1881. A version with piano accompaniment was published in 1882. It was dedicated to Joseph Hellmesberger.
Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke was a German composer, conductor, and pianist in the mid-Romantic era.
Carnaval, Op. 9, is a work by Robert Schumann for piano solo, written in 1834–1835 and subtitled Scènes mignonnes sur quatre notes. It consists of 21 short pieces representing masked revelers at Carnival, a festival before Lent. Schumann gives musical expression to himself, his friends and colleagues, and characters from improvised Italian comedy. He dedicated the work to the violinist Karol Lipiński.
The two Serenades, Op. 11 and 16, represent early efforts by Johannes Brahms to write orchestral music. They both date from after the 1856 death of Robert Schumann when Brahms was residing in Detmold and had access to an orchestra.
Woldemar Bargiel was a German composer and conductor of the Romantic period.
Daniel Levy is an Argentine classical pianist. He is also an author, radio broadcaster and educator.
The Concerto for Clarinet, Viola, and Orchestra in E minor, Op. 88, is a composition by Max Bruch which was composed in 1911. It premiered on 5 March 1912 in Wilhelmshaven by the piece's dedicatees, violist Willy Hess and the composer's son and clarinet soloist, Max Felix Bruch. The score however was published 23 years after the composer's death, finally being released in 1942.
Camille Saint-Saëns's Oboe Sonata in D major, Op. 166 was composed in 1921, the year of the composer's death.
Johannes Brahms' String Quintet No. 1 in F major, Op. 88, was composed in 1882 in the spa town of Bad Ischl, Upper Austria, and published by the firm of Fritz Simrock. It was first performed at a chamber music evening in Frankfurt on 29 December 1882.
Written in 1846, the Piano Trio in G minor, opus 17 by Clara Schumann was her only piano trio and was composed during her stay in Dresden 1845-1846. During the development of the Trio, she was going through hardships in life. Her husband Robert Schumann was extremely ill. This trio was completed during the summer of 1846 when they traveled to Norderney in attempts to improve Robert's health conditions. While in Norderney, Clara suffered from miscarriage. A year after the composition of her piano trio, Robert composed his first piano trio, op.63. It is seen that Clara's trio has had great influences on Robert's trio as they both share many interesting similarities. Their works were frequently paired at concerts.
4 Pièces caractéristiques by Clara Schumann was composed between 1834 and 1836, and published in 1836. The entire work is labeled as opus 5, and is written for solo piano. The pieces are as follows.
The Three Romances for Violin and Piano, Op. 22 of Clara Schumann, were written in 1853 and first published in 1855.
Märchenerzählungen, Op. 132, is a trio composition by Robert Schumann in four movements for clarinet, viola and piano. He composed the clarinet-viola-piano trio in B-flat major, between 9 and 11 October 1853. The movements are connected by a motif (Kernmotiv). The work is dedicated to Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich, and was published in 1854 by Breitkopf & Härtel.
Adagio and Allegro, Op. 70, is a chamber music piece in A-flat major for piano and horn by Robert Schumann. It was written in February 1849. Schumann planned alternative editions before it was printed in which the horn or cello or violin can be replaced. The title was initially intended to be "Romance and Allegro". Schumann then decided on "Adagio and Allegro".
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7, was composed by Clara Wieck, better known as Clara Schumann after her later marriage to Robert Schumann. She completed her only finished piano concerto in 1835, and played it first that year with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, conducted by Felix Mendelssohn.
Robert Schumann's Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102 is a set of five short pieces for cello and piano, composed in 1849 and published in 1851 with a dedication to cellist Andreas Grabau. It was Schumann's only published work designed explicitly for performance by cello and piano, though the pieces also appeared in a version prepared by Schumann for violin and piano. The first edition's title page reads "ad libitum violine".