|Medium||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||180 cm× 132 cm(71 in× 52 in)|
|Location||Banca Commerciale Italiana, Milan|
Three Women (Italian : Tre donne) is a painting by Italian artist Umberto Boccioni, executed between 1909 and 1910. This painting is oil on canvas painted in the style of divisionism. Divisionism refers to the actual division of colors by creating separated brush strokes as opposed to smooth, solid lines. The painting contains three figures, one being Boccioni's mother Cecilia on the left, another being his sister, Amelia on the right, and the third being Ines, his lover, in the center.
Art teacher and portraitist Giacomo Balla introduced Boccioni to the painting styles of divisionism.According to the Deutsche Bank and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, divisionism, which emerged in Northern Italy in the late 1880s, was the “painting method [that] was characterized by the juxtaposition of strokes of pigment to create the visual effect of intense single colors”. These individual strokes vary over the surface of the canvas, resembling “filament-like” threads. Divisionists also believed in increased luminosity in their paintings. As Boccioni was making the transition from divisionism to futurism, he struggled with changing his pre-futuristic subjects of art. This is because typical divisionism depicts rural labor, tranquility, beauty, and landscape. When Boccioni started to draw futuristic paintings, including industrialized scenes and urban modernity, he did not make the smoothest of transitions. Italian divisionism uses a variety of spectral colors to apply the paint in varied dots and strokes. However, divisionism varies from artist to artist; there are no guidelines. Sometime in the years between 1909 and 1910, Boccioni met Fillipo Tommaso Marinetti, the first futurist formulator. These two men, along with Carlo Carra, Luigi Russolo, Giacomo Balla, and Gino Severini decided to create The Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painters. This manifesto describes the theories that make up futurism as well as the guidelines that make a futuristic painting just that.
Three Women is one of Umberto Boccioni's paintings that portrayed evidence of his transformation from the divisionism style to the futurism style. Three Women is a painting that portrays raw emotion, with calmness and intimacy.The faces of the figures in the painting are dressed with melancholy tones. This painting is categorized as a divisionism painting, however there exists a futuristic style within it. The way that the light enters the room and affects the figures is an example of how this painting contains both divisionism and futurism. A characteristic of futurism lies in the varying and visible strokes as well. This aspect of futurism is extremely evident in this painting; it is seen in the women's dresses, the women's hair, the luminescence, the walls in the background, the bed, and the women's faces and skin. Also, the luminescence mentioned above, according to Maurizio Calvesi, may be in relation to Einstein's concepts of the physical properties of light, adding yet another futuristic aspect to Three Women, he says in 1967. According to Ester Coen, Three Women "marks a moment of transition in the artist’s work, the bridge from the suburbs of Milan to the idealistic vision of The City Rises".
Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist movement. He was associated with the utopian and Symbolist artistic and literary community Abbaye de Créteil between 1907 and 1908. Marinetti is best known as the author of the first Futurist Manifesto, which was written and published in 1909, and also of the Fascist Manifesto.
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasised speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. Its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, and Luigi Russolo. It glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism's artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's painting Abstract Speed + Sound, and Russolo's The Art of Noises.
Umberto Boccioni was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to the dynamism of form and the deconstruction of solid mass guided artists long after his death. His works are held by many public art museums, and in 1988 the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City organized a major retrospective of 100 pieces.
Giacomo Balla was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism. In his paintings he depicted light, movement and speed.
Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the "return to order" in the decade after the First World War. During his career he worked in a variety of media, including mosaic and fresco. He showed his work at major exhibitions, including the Rome Quadrennial, and won art prizes from major institutions.
The Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art is a museum in Canonbury Square in the district of Islington on the northern fringes of central London. It is the United Kingdom's only gallery devoted to modern Italian art and is a registered charity under English law.
Futurist architecture is an early-20th century form of architecture born in Italy, characterized by strong chromaticism, long dynamic lines, suggesting speed, motion, urgency and lyricism: it was a part of Futurism, an artistic movement founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who produced its first manifesto, the Manifesto of Futurism, in 1909. The movement attracted not only poets, musicians, and artists but also a number of architects. A cult of the Machine Age and even a glorification of war and violence were among the themes of the Futurists. The latter group included the architect Antonio Sant'Elia, who, though building little, translated the futurist vision into an urban form.
Mario Sironi was an Italian modernist artist who was active as a painter, sculptor, illustrator, and designer. His typically somber paintings are characterized by massive, immobile forms.
The City Rises (1910) is a painting by the Italian painter Umberto Boccioni. It was his first major Futurist work.
Giovanni Lista is an Italian art historian and art critic born in Italy on February 13, 1943 at Castiglione del Lago (Perugia) and now living in Paris. He is a specialist in the artistic cultural scene of the 1920s, particularly in Futurism.
Italian Contemporary art refers to painting and sculpture in Italy from the early 20th century onwards.
The Street Enters the House is an oil on canvas painting by Italian artist Umberto Boccioni. Painted in the Futurist style, the work centres on a woman on a balcony in front of a busy street, with the sounds of the activity below portrayed as a riot of shapes and colours.
Development of a Bottle in Space is a bronze futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni. Initially a sketch in Boccioni’s "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture"," the design was later cast into bronze by Boccioni himself in the year 1913. Consistent with many of themes in Boccioni’s manifesto, the work of art highlights the artist’s first successful attempt at creating a sculpture that both molds and encloses space within itself.
Au Vélodrome, also known as At the Cycle-Race Track and Le cycliste, is a painting by the French artist and theorist Jean Metzinger. The work illustrates the final meters of the Paris–Roubaix race, and portrays its 1912 winner Charles Crupelandt. Metzinger's painting is the first in Modernist art to represent a specific sporting event and its champion.
Benedetta Cappa was an Italian futurist artist who has had retrospectives at the Walker Art Center and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Her work fits within the second phase of Italian Futurism.
Girl Running on Balcony is a 1912 painting by Giacomo Balla, one of the forerunners of the Italian movement called Futurism. The piece indicates the artist's growing interests in creative nuances which would later formally be realized as part of the Futurist movement. The artist was influenced heavily by northern Italians' use of divisionism and the French's better known pointillism. Created with oil on canvas just on the brink of World War I, the Futurist movement is embodied by a dark optimism for a future of speed, turbulence, chaos, and new beginnings. Most of Giacaomo Balla's pieces allude to the wonder of dynamic movement, and this painting is no exception. The oil painting is currently housed at the Museo del Novecento in Milan.
Dynamism of a Cyclist is a 1913 painting by Italian Futurist artist Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916) that demonstrates the Futurist preoccupation with speed, modern methods of transport, and the depiction of the dynamic sensation of movement.
Street Light is a painting by Italian Futurist painter Giacomo Balla, dated 1909, depicting an electric street lamp casting a glow which outshines the crescent moon. The painting was inspired by streetlights at the Piazza Termini in Rome.
Růžena Zátková was a painter and sculptor who has been regarded as the "only authentic Czech futurist." As a result of her Bohemian heritage and her decade-long residency in Rome, Růžena Zátková became an important artistic link between Russian and Italian Futurism. Zátková is considered one of the pioneers of kinetic art.
Dynamism of a Human Body: Boxer is a dynamism drawing created by the futurist Italian artist Umberto Boccioni. The work was intended to show a subject in between a state of motion and stillness.